• Essay on punctuation 2022

    Essay on punctuation

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    Essay on punctuation

    The greatest danger in punctuation is for poetry. Here it is necessary to be as economical and parsimonious with commas and periods as with the words themselves, and any marks that seem to carry their own subtle meanings, like dashes and little rows of periods, even semicolons and question marks, should be left out altogether rather than inserted to clog up the thing with ambiguity. A single exclamation point in a poem, no matter what else the poem has to say, is enough to destroy the whole work. Essay on punctuation

    Essay on punctuation

    T here are no precise rules about punctuation (Fowler lays out some general advice (as best he can under the complex circumstances of English prose (he points out, for example, that we possess only four stops (the comma, the semicolon, the colon and the period (the question mark and exclamation point are not, strictly speaking, stops; they are indicators of tone (oddly enough, the Greeks employed the semicolon for their question mark (it produces a strange sensation to read a Greek sentence which is a straightforward question: Why weepest thou; (instead of Why weepest thou? (and, of course, there are parentheses (which are surely a kind of punctuation making this whole matter much more complicated by having to count up the left-handed parentheses in order to be sure of closing with the right number (but if the parentheses were left out, with nothing to work with but the stops we would have considerably more flexibility in the deploying of layers of meaning than if we tried to separate all the clauses by physical barriers (and in the latter case, while we might have more precision and exactitude for our meaning, we would lose the essential flavor of language, which is its wonderful ambiguity )))))))))))).

    The commas are the most useful and usable of all the stops. It is highly important to put them in place as you go along. If you try to come back after doing a paragraph and stick them in the various spots that tempt you you will discover that they tend to swarm like minnows in all sorts of crevices whose existence you hadn’t realized and before you know it the whole long sentence becomes immobilized and lashed up squirming in commas. Better to use them sparingly, and with affection, precisely when the need for each one arises, nicely, by itself.

    I have grown fond of semicolons in recent years. The semicolon tells you that there is still some question about the preceding full sentence; something needs to be added; it reminds you sometimes of the Greek usage. It is almost always a greater pleasure to come across a semicolon than a period. The period tells you that that is that; if you didn’t get all the meaning you wanted or expected, anyway you got all the writer intended to parcel out and now you have to move along. But with a semicolon there you get a pleasant little feeling of expectancy; there is more to come; to read on; it will get clearer.

    Colons are a lot less attractive for several reasons: firstly, they give you the feeling of being rather ordered around, or at least having your nose pointed in a direction you might not be inclined to take if left to yourself, and, secondly, you suspect you’re in for one of those sentences that will be labeling the points to be made: firstly, secondly and so forth, with the implication that you haven’t sense enough to keep track of a sequence of notions without having them numbered. Also, many writers use this system loosely and incompletely, starting out with number one and number two as though counting off on their fingers but then going on and on without the succession of labels you’ve been led to expect, leaving you floundering about searching for the ninethly or seventeenthly that ought to be there but isn’t.

    Exclamation points are the most irritating of all. Look! they say, look at what I just said! How amazing is my thought! It is like being forced to watch someone else’s small child jumping up and down crazily in the center of the living room shouting to attract attention. If a sentence really has something of importance to say, something quite remarkable, it doesn’t need a mark to point it out. And if it is really, after all, a banal sentence needing more zing, the exclamation point simply emphasizes its banality!

    Quotation marks should be used honestly and sparingly, when there is a genuine quotation at hand, and it is necessary to be very rigorous about the words enclosed by the marks. If something is to be quoted, the exact words must be used. If part of it must be left out because of space limitations, it is good manners to insert three dots to indicate the omission, but it is unethical to do this if it means connecting two thoughts which the original author did not intend to have tied together. Above all, quotation marks should not be used for ideas that you’d like to disown, things in the air so to speak. Nor should they be put in place around clichés; if you want to use a cliché you must take full responsibility for it yourself and not try to fob it off on anon., or on society. The most objectionable misuse of quotation marks, but one which illustrates the danger of misuse in ordinary prose, is seen in advertising, especially in advertisements for small restaurants, for example "just around the corner," or "a good place to eat." No single, identifiable, citable person ever really said, for the record, "just around the corner," much less "a good place to eat," least likely of all for restaurants of the type that use this type of prose.

    The dash is a handy device, informal and essentially playful, telling you that you’re about to take off on a different tack but still in some way connected with the present course — only you have to remember that the dash is there, and either put a second dash at the end of the notion to let the reader know that he’s back on course, or else end the sentence, as here, with a period.

    The greatest danger in punctuation is for poetry. Here it is necessary to be as economical and parsimonious with commas and periods as with the words themselves, and any marks that seem to carry their own subtle meanings, like dashes and little rows of periods, even semicolons and question marks, should be left out altogether rather than inserted to clog up the thing with ambiguity. A single exclamation point in a poem, no matter what else the poem has to say, is enough to destroy the whole work.

    The things I like best in T.S. Eliot’s poetry, especially in the Four Quartets , are the semicolons. You cannot hear them, but they are there, laying out the connections between the images and the ideas. Sometimes you get a glimpse of a semicolon coming, a few lines farther on, and it is like climbing a steep path through woods and seeing a wooden bench just at a bend in the road ahead, a place where you can expect to sit for a moment, catching your breath.

    Commas can’t do this sort of thing; they can only tell you how the different parts of a complicated thought are to be fitted together, but you can’t sit, not even to take a breath, just because of a comma,

    * From The Medusa and the Snail: More Notes of a Biology Watcher (1979:103-6).

    Essay on punctuation

    Example: According to Thoreau, "We do not ride on the railroad; it rides upon us." Essay on punctuation

    English Composition 1

    You should never have a quotation standing alone as a complete sentence, or, worse, as an incomplete sentence, in your writing. The quotation will seem disconnected from your own thoughts and from the flow of your sentences. Ways to integrate quotations properly into your own sentences, with correct use of punctuation, are explained below.

    There are at least four ways to integrate quotations.

    1. Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon.

    Example: In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states directly his purpose for going into the woods: "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived."

    Example: Thoreau’s philosophy might be summed up best by his repeated request for people to ignore the insignificant details of life: "Our life is frittered away by detail. An honest man has hardly need to count more than his ten fingers, or in extreme cases he may add his ten toes, and lump the rest. Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity!"

    Example: Thoreau ends his essay with a metaphor: "Time is but the stream I go a-fishing in."

    This is an easy rule to remember: if you use a complete sentence to introduce a quotation, you need a colon after the sentence. Be careful not to confuse a colon (:) with a semicolon (;). Using a comma in this situation will most likely create a comma splice, one of the serious sentence-boundary errors.

    2. Use an introductory or explanatory phrase, but not a complete sentence, separated from the quotation with a comma.

    Example: In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states directly his purpose for going into the woods when he says, "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived."

    Example: Thoreau suggests the consequences of making ourselves slaves to progress when he says, "We do not ride on the railroad; it rides upon us."

    Example: Thoreau asks, "Why should we live with such hurry and waste of life?"

    Example: According to Thoreau, "We do not ride on the railroad; it rides upon us."

    You should use a comma to separate your own words from the quotation when your introductory or explanatory phrase ends with a verb such as "says," "said," "thinks," "believes," "pondered," "recalls," "questions," and "asks" (and many more). You should also use a comma when you introduce a quotation with a phrase such as "According to Thoreau."

    3. Make the quotation a part of your own sentence without any punctuation between your own words and the words you are quoting.

    Example: In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states directly his purpose for going into the woods when he says that "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived."

    Example: Thoreau suggests the consequences of making ourselves slaves to progress when he says that "We do not ride on the railroad; it rides upon us."

    Example: Thoreau argues that "shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is fabulous."

    Example: According to Thoreau, people are too often "thrown off the track by every nutshell and mosquito’s wing that falls on the rails."

    Notice that the word "that" is used in three of the examples above, and when it is used as it is in the examples, "that" replaces the comma which would be necessary without "that" in the sentence. You usually have a choice, then, when you begin a sentence with a phrase such as "Thoreau says." You either can add a comma after "says" (Thoreau says, "quotation") or you can add the word "that" with no comma (Thoreau says that "quotation.")

    4. Use short quotations–only a few words–as part of your own sentence.

    Example: In "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For," Thoreau states that his retreat to the woods around Walden Pond was motivated by his desire "to live deliberately" and to face only "the essential facts of life."

    Example: Thoreau argues that people blindly accept "shams and delusions" as the "soundest truths," while regarding reality as "fabulous."

    Example: Although Thoreau "drink[s] at" the stream of Time, he can "detect how shallow it is."

    When you integrate quotations in this way, you do not use any special punctuation. Instead, you should punctuate the sentence just as you would if all of the words were your own. No punctuation is needed in the sentences above in part because the sentences do not follow the pattern explained under number 1 and 2 above: there is not a complete sentence in front of the quotations, and a word such as "says," "said," or "asks" does not appear directly in front of the quoted words.

    All of the methods above for integrating quotations are correct, but you should avoid relying too much on just one method. You should instead use a variety of methods.

    Notice the Punctuation!

    Notice that there are only two punctuation marks that are used to introduce quotations: the comma and the colon (:). Note that a semicolon (;) is not used to introduce quotations.

    Notice as well the punctuation of the sentences above in relation to the quotations. If there are no parenthetical citations in the sentences (no author’s name and page number in parentheses), the commas and periods go inside the final quotation mark ("like this."). For whatever reason, this is the way we do it in America. In England, though, the commas and periods go outside of the final punctuation mark.

    Semicolons and colons go outside of the final quotation mark ("like this";).

    Question marks and exclamation points go outside of the final quotation mark if the punctuation mark is part of your sentence–your question or your exclamation ("like this"?). Those marks go inside of the final quotation mark if they are a part of the original–the writer’s question or exclamation ("like this!").

    The Proper Punctuation: Keeping it Simple

    Remembering just a few simple rules can help you use the correct punctuation as you introduce quotations. There are some exceptions to the rules below, but they should help you use the correct punctuation with quotations most of the time.

    • Rule 1: Complete sentence: "quotation." (If you use a complete sentence to introduce a quotation, use a colon (:) just before the quotation.)
    • Rule 2: Someone says, "quotation." (If the word just before the quotation is a verb indicating someone uttering the quoted words, use a comma. Examples include the words "says," "said," "states," "asks," and "yells." But remember that there is no punctuation if the word "that" comes just before the quotation, as in "the narrator says that.")
    • Rule 3: If Rules 1 and 2 do not apply, do not use any punctuation between your words and the quoted words.

    And remember that a semicolon (;) never is used to introduce quotations.

    These rules oversimplify the use of punctuation with quotations, but applying just these few rules should help you use the correct punctuation about 90 percent of time.

    Essay on punctuation

    It can sometimes be helpful to write the introduction last, as your argument will change and develop as you write it, and once you’ve written the whole thing it will be easier for you to introduce it! Essay on punctuation

    How to Write an Essay in English | Student Tips

    If you are at the stage of your learning where you are expected to compose an essay, it is fair to say that you’ve achieved a good grasp of the English language. Writing an essay gives you the opportunity to display your knowledge, but it is important that you get the structure right. In case you aren’t sure about how to put your essay together, here is a helpful breakdown on how to write an essay in English.

    There are three sections to focus on in your essay: the introduction, body, and conclusion. The classic essay structure is 5 paragraphs (1 for the introduction, 3 for the body, and 1 for the conclusion), although more advanced essays become much longer and more complex.

    Introduction

    The introduction should begin with an interesting hook that entices readers and makes them want to read on. An interesting or controversial quotation or else a surprising statistic might make for a nice essay beginning. The introduction should do just what its name suggests: introduce your essay and address the essay prompt question directly. Use wording that is similar to the question. Explain what you are trying to prove and define any terms or concepts that might be important. Depending on the length of the essay, the introduction should only be a few sentences to prepare the reader for what they can expect. Don’t go into too much depth – that is what the rest of the essay is for!

    It can sometimes be helpful to write the introduction last, as your argument will change and develop as you write it, and once you’ve written the whole thing it will be easier for you to introduce it!

    Body

    This section should be split into paragraphs, each with a different part of your argument written clearly and concisely. Each paragraph is a new step in your argument to help your reader understand what you are trying to prove. As a result, it’s important that this part of the essay be very well planned and continue in a logical, understandable order. Support your points with details, quotes, examples, or other evidence, and explain why these points confirm your argument. Now is the time to go into detail!

    Be sure to keep the information relevant, and try not to veer off the subject. Use transition words such as “furthermore,” “moreover,” “by contrast,” and “on the other hand” throughout your paragraphs to signal the beginning of a new argument and make the essay easy to follow. A well thought-out argument will often also address possible counterarguments, exposing the reader to other ways of thinking but explaining why yours is better.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion is your final chance to state your case, and it’s for this reason that it’s possibly the most important part of the essay. It only needs to be a few sentences long, but it should restate your essay topic and echo the arguments presented in your introduction without restating them. This ties the essay together nicely and reinforces the points made throughout the text. Conclusions are sometimes the hardest part to write, as you can’t simply copy what you have said elsewhere. Sum up to your audience the major points you’ve made and leave them with something to think about after they are done reading.

    Writing Style and Tips

    • Use formal language – an essay is not the place for slang, casual phrases, or contractions.
    • Write in the third person, using words such as “he,” “she,” “they,” or “it,” and never refer to yourself (“I,” “me”) or the reader (“you”) directly. (A useful trick is to replace “I” with “one”: “one gets the impression that…”)
    • Write in active speech, as opposed to passive, as this is a much more powerful way to express your points. So, instead of writing, “the author was given a lifetime achievement award”, you could instead write, “the author earned a lifetime achievement award.”
    • Ensure each paragraph flows seamlessly onto the next. Although it should be split into the clear sections mentioned above, the last sentence of each paragraph should still somehow relate to the first sentence of the next.

    Writing skills may take time to develop, but think of your essay as an argument with someone who doesn’t believe what you have to say. What should you say next to prove that you are right? How do you sum up your ideas at the end? Keep these tips in mind, and soon you’ll be a master essay writer!

    Essay on punctuation

    Essay on punctuation

    Body
    Essay on punctuation
    This section should be split into paragraphs, each with a different part of your argument written clearly and concisely. Each paragraph is a new step in your argument to help your reader understand what you are trying to prove. As a result, it’s important that this part of the essay be very well planned and continue in a logical, understandable order. Support your points with details, quotes, examples, or other evidence, and explain why these points confirm your argument. Now is the time to go into detail! Essay on punctuation
    Although it should be split into the clear sections mentioned above, the last sentence of each paragraph should still somehow relate to the first sentence of the next. Essay on punctuation
    Essay on punctuation
    Essay on punctuation

  • Process essay samples 2022

    Process essay samples

    When writing the process essay, think your classmates as your readers. This will help you explain the process using a simple language and words that they will understand easily. Additionally, make the process interesting even to those who may never attempt it themselves. Process essay samples

    146 Process Paper Topics

    Are you looking for a process essay idea? Below we will guide you through the process of coming up with a good idea for a process essay.

    Tips To Develop A Process Essay Topic

    1. Focus On Things Your Are Good At-

    The first step to choosing a good idea for a process essay is to think of a process that you understand better than other students in your class. For example, are you exceptionally good at canning strawberries, using a certain computer program, or taking inventory, or resolving conflicts, or building an architectural model? You can turn all those skills into ideas for a process essay.

    Alternatively, you can think of unconventional processes. Some examples include how to become rich and famous by being painfully incompetent (Paris Hilton). Other ideas include writing on how to travel around the world without paying for it, or how to get someone else do your housework.

    After you decide on the process you want to focus on, you should then make a list of steps required to achieve the goals of the activity. Finally, describe each of the steps to make an essay of a process paper. Make sure you make a thorough interpretation of each process in the most interesting way so to capture the attention of your reader.

    2. Pick A Topic From Something You Have Read About

    Things that you have read in class are another good place to begin when searching for topics for a process essay. You have already done a lot of reading and a lot of writing in your life. Just think of one of those things you read about, especially one that you found particularly interesting. Alternatively, you can write about an aspect of reading and writing and write a “How To” or “How Not To” paper process paper. Some topics that you can choose in this area include:

    1. “How to find a good book,”
    2. ” How to find what you want in the library,”
    3. ” How to find ideas for writing a paper,”
    4. “How to organize a bibliography,”
    5. “How to find a publisher for your writing,”
    6. “How to write about sports (or music, art, or social events),”
    7. “How to find things on the Internet.”

    When writing the process essay, think your classmates as your readers. This will help you explain the process using a simple language and words that they will understand easily. Additionally, make the process interesting even to those who may never attempt it themselves.

    3. Choose An Institutional/ Industrial Process

    The other source of a process essay idea is an industrial process. This is your turn to convert all the knowledge that you got from your summer job into a process essay. Some topics that you can write about include:

    Process essay samples

    P rof E ssays.com have set very high standards: Process essay samples

    Process Essay Writing Help

    A Process essay deals with detailed description of the process that is asked for. Students have to deal with such essays every now and then when they are asked to describe a certain process or how something is working. These essays are also known as descriptive essays because they are written, keeping in mind the smallest details.

    Navigation Menu Through the Process Essay Page

    Download Process Essay Sample

    Process essay topics

    A process essay is written to explain how to do something or a process of doing something. Since it is a process, it is sequential and should be followed step by step. Plenty of process essay topics can be chosen. To give you an idea look through some of the interesting ones:

    Process Essay (click image to enlarge)

    • How to make a chocolate cake
    • How to use a microwave to cook
    • How to repair a leak on your roof
    • How to paint your fence
    • How to make friends
    • How to organize a perfect picnic for kids
    • Process for knitting a pullover
    • How to choose a career
    • How to organize your wardrobe

    A perfect process essay sample will have to be one which describes the process of doing something in steps, one after the other. So a good sample would be for example: “How to plan a holiday

    The various steps involved would be

    1. How many days of vacation do you have?
    2. Based on the days you can plan the distance to travel.
    3. Then list places you always wanted to visit.
    4. Check the cost
    5. If it is with in budget, check out the travel, stay and sight seeing facilities
    6. Once finalized make the reservations
    7. Make a list of things you will need to take with you.

    This is just a process essay sample. But if you need to do it seriously you can place an order for a process essay with P rof E ssays.com who will get your essay ready within an affordable cost and within a stipulated time.

    Before starting anything it is always important to decide what topic you are going to pick up. Once you have decided the topic a much hectic job of brainstorming is going to start for you. Brainstorming is followed by research work. To become the master of your work you are required to do an extensive research. Our writers at P rof E ssays.com know how the research should be done. They know how to work in order to produce the best custom essays for you. The research work includes checking out the entire professional and academic databases to come out with the most appropriate work.

    Once the database has been assembled, now is the time to get started with the main analysis work. Our writers make sure that they analyze every single argument and claims offered in the database and hence construct a meaningful essay out of it. When it is about a process essay, it is important to keep all the necessary details in mind. Such essays are usually written in steps. Each step explains the process in great detail. While writing we make sure that the point should come across.

    The whole idea of constructing a process essay is to make the reader understand a certain concept. It is important to keep questioning every single fact while writing a conceptual paper. It is by questioning your own works that you reach the best of arguments to begin with. It is suggested to let the reader know what process or concept you are going to elaborate upon. For that a relevant thesis statement needs to be constructed at the beginning of the essay. Our writers help you create the most impressive thesis statements because we know that the first impression is really precious. Read more about how to write an essay and essay title page.

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    P rof E ssays.com is a custom writing service provider. The writers at P rof E ssays.com are a set trained quality essay writing professionals who can crack any sort of essay topic with great ease and efficiency. We have full knowledge about writing any kinds of custom essay topics. We are aware that these are research papers and require utmost dedication and skills.

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    Process Essay Example

    When writing a process essay the important part is to follow a sequence or pattern. P rof E ssays.com has a database of process essay examples which will give you an idea of our writing quality and style and guide you with placing an order.

    Some process essay examples are:

    • Evolution – from a caterpillar to a butterfly- the whole process can be described effectively, sequentially.
    • Professional makeup- from scrubbing, use of concealers, use of foundations, eye makeup, blushers, lip makeup to finishing touches- all these have to follow an order.
    • Emergency medical care- from immediate first aid, calling the ambulance to shifting to hospital, it’s a routine that has to be followed in case of emergencies.

    P rof E ssays.com has many examples to suggest if you have made up your mind to buy essay from us. We entertain any number of revisions. Being in this field since 2003 has made us one of the top bracket online writing services. We hire certified professional writers from the best of universities and colleges. Our expertise in every field enables us to write on any topic in any style. So you don’t have to worry, just make the decision to order essay from us. It’s just a click away.

    Process Essay Structure

    Like any other essay there is a basic format for a process essay. A process essay structure is

    Process essay samples

    Give us your paper requirements, choose a writer and we’ll save your precious time. Process essay samples

    Expository Essay Category

    Analytical Essay Example

    Find the analysis Of Mathew Taibbi's' article in the following analytical essay example. Need more info about how to write an analytical essay? Find all the answers in our writing guide or use the Write My Paper service.

    Topic: Analysis Of Mathew Taibbis's Article

    Article Review Example

    Need to analyze and evaluate the work of another expert? Special for scholars and student we wrote the article about how to write an article review. Bonus from EssayPro experts: article review example.

    Topic: Why Have There Been no Great Female Artists?

    Character Analysis Essay Example

    As a Character Analysis Example, we roasted Transformation of Huck and Jim in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Give it a check! If you need more info about how to make a character analysis, click on the guide.

    Topic: Transformation of Huck and Jim in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Classification Essay Examples

    If you are learning how to write a classification essay, then you need to figure out what it actually is. And the best way to do that is to check our guide and some classification essay examples attached below.

    Process essay samples

    Background Information
    The next step is to gather as much background information about the topic as possible (Helregel, 2015). Sort through encyclopedias, news articles and sources, and bibliographies to find out what is known about the topic and how much information there may be about it out there to find. At this point, nothing about the topic should be ignored since you do not know how it will bear on your research later. This is a general step of gathering background information on the topic that can later be sorted through for relevancy. Process essay samples

    The Research Process

    Depending on whom you consult, there can be as few as seven steps (Engle, 2001) or as many as fourteen steps (Fang et al., 2008) in the research process. It all depends on how specific a researcher wants to get in describing what takes place before a research proposal and research paper are written (Berger, 1998). Because of the space limitations, this discussion will revolve around the seven-step process.

    Identify and Develop Your Topic
    The first step is to identify and develop the topic you wish to research (Engle, 2011). Research cannot be done without a topic. Sometimes the topic may be given to you and sometimes you may be asked to pick a topic of your own choosing. Often in academic research, teams of experts in the same field will explore a topic in that field in order to build on the information that is already known. Be sure the topic is of interest to you; the research will ever so boring and tedious if you are not interested to begin with or if you lose interest in the topic before the research is done.

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    Background Information
    The next step is to gather as much background information about the topic as possible (Helregel, 2015). Sort through encyclopedias, news articles and sources, and bibliographies to find out what is known about the topic and how much information there may be about it out there to find. At this point, nothing about the topic should be ignored since you do not know how it will bear on your research later. This is a general step of gathering background information on the topic that can later be sorted through for relevancy.

    Use Catalogs to Find Books and Media
    Every library has a card catalog, either physical or virtual, that contains the books and other media listings on your topic (Engle, 2011). You should review the catalog to see what holdings the library has on the topic of your research. Once you find a volume, check the bibliography in it to see what other books may be available. There are also general subject catalogs that might provide a broader listing of available materials beyond what your library carries.

    Use Indexes to Find Periodical Articles
    Almost every subject or topic has publications dedicated to expanding information about that topic. To find what is in a particular publication, use the periodical indexes and search for published articles on the topic of interest (Engle, 2011). Do not ignore any of the listed articles, unless you know they will not be relevant to your research. You never know what piece of information might just be the key to your research.

    Find Internet Resources
    Researchers today have the added advantage of having the Internet available to surf. It is incredible how much information on a specific topic is available on the Internet and its various websites. It is a wealth of information that should not be ignored, but sifted through carefully to avoid unreliable websites. There are various search engines that should be automatic sources to be checked (Engle, 2011).

    Evaluate What You Find
    Step six is to evaluate all of the information you have accumulated (Engle, 2011). Each successive step has narrowed the information search to specific types of sources. But, you still have tons of information, not all of which will be relevant to your topic of interest. This where to examine each piece of information to determine its potential value to your research, and you discard all of the sources that do not fit your topic and research proposal.

    Cite What You Find Using a Standard Format
    Once you have evaluated all of the information, it is time to write it up in a way that will be usable in your research proposal and written research paper. In fact, this write up could serve as the literature review in the larger research report. This is also where you, as the researcher, refine your research topic and develop your ideas about the research design, data collection methods and the data analysis.

    Process essay samples

    Process essay samples

    Process essay samples
    Identify and Develop Your Topic
    The first step is to identify and develop the topic you wish to research (Engle, 2011). Research cannot be done without a topic. Sometimes the topic may be given to you and sometimes you may be asked to pick a topic of your own choosing. Often in academic research, teams of experts in the same field will explore a topic in that field in order to build on the information that is already known. Be sure the topic is of interest to you; the research will ever so boring and tedious if you are not interested to begin with or if you lose interest in the topic before the research is done. Process essay samples
    Often in academic research, teams of experts in the same field will explore a topic in that field in order to build on the information that is already known. Process essay samples
    Process essay samples
    Ideas, process essays, interesting essays

  • Compare essay outline 2022

    Compare essay outline

    The third and final section of the point by point method is the conclusion. This is the grand finale of your outline for compare and contrast essay and consists of a summary of the main points of your paper, followed by a restatement of the thesis statement. Compare essay outline

    Compare and Contrast Essay Outline

    The most common outline for compare and contrast essay projects is known as the “point by point method.” Here, the outline is split into three separate sections; the first is the introduction. This, of course, introduces the two subjects that are to be contrasted or compared. A statement is made which defines the purpose of the whole essay, and the main reasons for the comparison are then outlined point-by-point.

    The second section of the outline is the body. This is where the supporting detail is noted, and again, this is done point by point. As an example let us compare cats with dogs. In the outline, subject A will be the dog, and subject B the cat. Let us suppose that we are comparing the ability to be left alone – we could say that a dog does not like being left alone, but with a cat this would be no problem. We would list this as point one.

    We would then give supporting detail – in this case; cats are happy to be left alone, as they tend to be solitary animals, whereas dogs are pack animals, and hate to be left alone.

    Provide an Example and Support

    The last part of each point is to provide an example of these supporting details. Here we could describe details of cats happily sleeping on beds or in baskets with their owners at work, whilst dogs can be shown ripping up the house, and destroying furniture in their frustration at being left.

    The third and final section of the point by point method is the conclusion. This is the grand finale of your outline for compare and contrast essay and consists of a summary of the main points of your paper, followed by a restatement of the thesis statement.

    The second type of outline is known as the block type. Here there is a similar introduction, which presents the two subjects that are being contrasted and compared, and again, includes an overview of the project and its purpose. This is followed by the thesis statement, and again, the main reasons for the comparison are then outlined in points.

    In contrast to the point by point method, the block type method lists the points, supporting detail, and examples, one after the other, for each of the categories.

    To go back to the dog and cat comparison – rather than list, point by point, the supporting detail, all of the attributes that you want to contrast and compare are presented as a block. For example, if I were wanting to make the case for dogs I would list, one after the other, all of my supporting detail and examples; dogs are happy to go for walks, dogs fetch sticks, dogs will keep intruders away, and so on.

    When I had finished this list I would then go on to cats, and using the same method; I would make the case for cats. Again, for example, cats do not annoy the neighbors by barking, cats do not need to be taken for walks, cats do not fetch sticks, and so on.

    Again, the third and final section of the block method is the conclusion. This is the grand finale of your outline compare and contrast essay and consists of a summary of the main points of your paper, followed by a restatement of the thesis statement.

    Know The Difference

    To illustrate the difference between the outlines but there are two templates which will show, in greater detail, the contrast between the two methods.

    So, by way of a summary, and to put some context into the compare and contrast essay outline template above; the three things which you need to make sure are present in your contrast and comparison paper are, the supporting details and the purpose of your essay, the structure and organization of it, and the coherence and transitions of the points you are making by using the examples provided above.

    We will leave you with a fabulous Resource that we found this list of some compare and contrast essay outline example pieces which back up what we have said here and we hope that you will find this useful in your studies.

    Finally, as you will have gathered, the key to these types of essays is the planning and research of them. Allow yourself plenty of time and think through how you are going to prove your examples. Try to think outside the box and approach your subjects in a way that your tutor may not have seen before.

    If the subject is unusual or particularly complicated or contentious, make sure that you can back up and give examples for, any of the points that you make.

    Good luck with it – whether you use point-to-point or block – go compare.

    Compare essay outline

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    Compare/Contrast Essay Outline

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    Compare essay outline

    The table provided below is the best example of a point-by-point structure: Compare essay outline

    Compare and Contrast Essay Outline

    Outlining an essay is as important as any part of the essay. Without an outline, there will be no structure making the essay lose its readability for the readers. Compare and contrast essay outline includes the following elements:

    Compare and Contrast Essay Introduction

    A strong opening paragraph is an integral part of any kind of essay. Like the main topic, the compare and contrast essay introduction also needs to be an attention grabber. To make your essay introduction compelling, take the following steps:

    1. Open your introductory paragraph with a hook statement. It can be a fact, quote, or a simple yet interesting sentence to grab the reader’s attention.
    2. Provide background information on your topic. You can not randomly start comparing two objects. Therefore, set a stage or briefly discuss the issues you are going to compare.
    3. Provide your thesis statement at the end of your introductory paragraph. The compare and contrast thesis should depict two subjects that are required to be compared.

    The introduction paragraph should create an overall picture of the comparison essay. Writing a strong introduction will make an essay impactful.

    Compare and Contrast Essay Body Paragraphs

    The body paragraphs of your essay are where you lay everything out in front of the reader and explain things with the help of facts.

    In the first section within the body paragraphs, you will discuss the significance of the subjects you have selected for comparisons and contrasts. In the last section of the body paragraph, you will be talking about the final factors of both the subjects to write a comparison.

    The structure of the body of your essay strongly depends on the method you choose to compare (block method or point-by-point).

    To keep your essay informative, you will have to source some factual information to impress the reader and teach them something new.

    Compare and Contrast Essay Conclusion

    A compare and contrast essay conclusion is drafted by providing the following information:

    • Summary of the major points of the content.
    • A brief analysis of the points discussed and the possible solutions. It depends on the subject matter and what approach you choose to analyze.
    • Provide the significance of your topic and the comparison made. Describe why you drew similarities and differences between two objects.

    The example of a compare and contrast essay outline below will give you a better understanding of the concept.

    Compare and Contrast Essay Outline Sample

    Compare essay outline

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    Hero Comparison Essay Outline

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    Support
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    Compare essay outline

  • Theme analysis essay outline 2022

    Theme analysis essay outline

    The opening paragraph of an academic literary essay is an introduction, and it is important to make the reader want to read the whole piece from cover to cover. Theme analysis essay outline

    Literary Analysis Essay: Learn How to Impress Your Teacher and Get A+

    By knowing how to write a literary analysis, a student can interpret any piece of literature he has read. Reading & comprehension are the integral parts of the learning process, and it is difficult to imagine perfect writing without mastering these skills. This article will help every student who asks, “What is a literary analysis?”

    After reading the article, think twice. In case of any questions left, you may buy a custom academic literary essay on any topic to get an excellent experience in the field of A+ writing.

    Theme analysis essay outline

    As you read about Romeo, you might jot down that he is handsome and smart. He could be characterized as immature, impulsive, passionate, and idealistic too. He is also a devoted friend. Theme analysis essay outline

    Step Two: Take Notes While Reading

    If you choose your character before you start reading, you can simply take notes about that character as you read. If you choose your character after reading the text, you can re-read it quickly with a focus on your character and take notes.

    Note Pertinent Childhood Facts

    Make note of important childhood facts or other useful information about the character’s background. Before you get into the “meat” of the study, it’s important to understand where your character came from. Note what you can talk about with respect to their place of birth, their family structure, and any impactful childhood moments.

    An example of a note from Romeo’s childhood could be that it was instilled in him at a young age that the Capulet family was an enemy or rival. You might also note that he is 16 years old at the beginning of the play.

    Record Physical and Character Traits

    Jot down any physical attributes and character traits the author highlights. Notice how your character interacts with other characters. This interpersonal study will make for a nice addition to your character analysis.

    As you read about Romeo, you might jot down that he is handsome and smart. He could be characterized as immature, impulsive, passionate, and idealistic too. He is also a devoted friend.

    Follow the Elements of the Plot

    Write down how your character fits into the five elements of the plot. This includes the introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution. What did your character do to help the plot achieve any of these elements? How did your character overcome any challenges or struggles? How did your character change or grow over the course of the story?

    Since Romeo is a main character, he fits into all parts of the plot. His actions of falling in love with Juliet, marrying her, killing Tybalt, and killing himself are all important plot elements.

    Theme analysis essay outline

    The main purpose of a critical analysis essay is to tell a reader about a subject, and to explain its purpose and meaning. You will also need to present your personal point of view and critically analyze the subject.
    Theme analysis essay outline

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    A critical analysis essay requires its writers to write a critical evaluation of an argument. Topics can range from analyzing a modern or historical event, film, book, types of music, and complicated social and political issues. It is a form of evaluation and observation with subjective elements. Critical analysis helps one to better understand a subject and it allows one to examine different controversial points of view.

    The main purpose of a critical analysis essay is to tell a reader about a subject, and to explain its purpose and meaning. You will also need to present your personal point of view and critically analyze the subject.

    Since critical analysis is very subjective, it is important to avoid some common mistakes. First and foremost, keep your tone formal and academic. Stay away from familiarities and slang. Second, critical analysis is mainly your own opinion on a matter that can be supported by the work of others. Do not base your entire essay on works of other scholars. If you do use supporting evidence from other sources, make sure that you reference it to avoid plagiarism. Next, make sure you focus on the analysis of the subject, rather than on the description of it. In critical analysis essays the point of interest is your opinion about the matter, not the matter itself. Lastly, make sure you follow a good structure and make sure that you have enough sufficient evidence. Double-check the logical sequence of your arguments to ensure that you present them to your reader correctly.

    It is very easy to confuse a descriptive essay with a critical analysis essay. A descriptive essay simply states what the subject is, or when and how an event happened. On the other hand, a critical analysis essay explains the significance of that subject and your personal viewpoint on the matter. It digs deep into a subject and shows the complexity of it. Instead of simply describing, a critical analysis essay evaluates the issue in different contexts and points of view. Reasoning and argument are the best approaches to differentiate a critical analysis essay from a descriptive one.

    Theme analysis essay outline

    Next, you can briefly mention the persuasive styles used by the author, and their effect. Theme analysis essay outline

    To ensure that you complete the outline correctly

    Feel free to ask one of our writers for help.

    Let’s look at a sample rhetorical analysis essay outline on the topic of Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” Speech to break down each part of this work in detail.

    1. Introduction: Rhetorical Précis:

    • Name of author, appositive phrase about the author and their genre to establish credibility & authority, and title of their work (followed by the date in parenthesis); a rhetorically accurate verb (such as “assert,” “argue,” “suggest,” “imply,” “claim,” etc.); and a THAT clause containing the major assertion (thesis statement) of the work.
    • An explanation of how the author develops and/or supports the thesis, usually in chronological order.
    • A statement of the author’s apparent purpose, followed by an “in order” phrase.
    • A description of the intended audience and the relationship the author establishes with the audience

    2. Body Paragraph #1:

    • Topic sentence/transition: “(author’s last name) begins with/by. (make your claim about what strategy you see working—address the purpose/prompt)”
    • Provide a specific example to support the idea: provide EXPLICIT textual support woven into your comments to support your claim. Thoroughly discuss all strategies used in the beginning section, supported by text.
    • Discussion of how examples support the idea: Connect the strategy back to your main claim/thesis/the purpose.

    3. Body Paragraph #2:

    • Topic sentence/transition: “After (an idea) the author moves to (another idea)” Connect an idea from the last sentence of the previous paragraph to the first sentence of this paragraph to show how the strategies build upon each other.
    • Provide examples to support your claim.
    • Discussion of how the example supports the idea: Connect the strategy back to your main claim/thesis/purpose.

    4. Last Body Paragraph:

    • Topic sentence/transition: “To close the essay/speech, (author). ” or “Concluding the argument he/she . ” – Connect an idea from the last sentence of the previous paragraph to the first sentence of this paragraph to show how the strategies build upon each other.
    • Provide examples to support your claim.
    • Discuss how the example supports the idea: Connect the strategy back to your main claim/thesis/purpose.

    5. Conclusion

    • Restate your thesis.
    • Reflect upon the examples and main ideas in the body paragraphs, the significance of these strategies, AND how they are linked to your thesis.
    • State if these were effective in conveying the claim/thesis/purpose.
    • Closing thoughts – close out the main purpose of the text being analyzed.

    Here is a rhetorical analysis essay template / scheme of the outline described above:

    Theme analysis essay outline

    Theme analysis essay outline

    To ensure that you complete the outline correctly
    Theme analysis essay outline
    Lastly, formulate your opinion into a well-crafted thesis statement. It should address the ‘who,’ ‘what,’ ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions. Your rhetorical analysis thesis statement usually comes at the end of your introductory paragraph. Theme analysis essay outline
    After giving the reader some perspective, it s time to do some critical analysis. Theme analysis essay outline

    Rhetorical Essay Outline

    To write a top-notch paper, a student needs to have a deep understanding of rhetorical devices and strategies. Furthermore, it is vital that you can identify and analyze their use in specific literary works. An additional factor that matters when analysing a text is proper structure—a good rhetorical analysis essay should be well-structured and organized.

    Keep in mind that organizing your rhetorical analysis essay is not the most important thing to consider; the most important thing is to make sure you address the specific demands of your particular writing task. Therefore, it‘s not obligatory to follow any standard essay structure; there are numerous ways to begin your rhetorical analysis outline correctly.

    If it’s better for you to follow the structure provided by your professor. If they don’t provide a required structure for your essay, you can always use the 5-6 paragraphing style. Here is our advice for your outline:

    • Make sure to read, analyze, and make notes before beginning your outline.
    • Write the main points of your essay in your outline and add evidence to support them.
    • Create a thesis statement that encompasses your main points and addresses the purpose of the author’s writing.

    If you have the main ideas to support your thesis and have evidence to back them up in your outline, the writing will be easier. You can also use our rhetorical analysis essay outline template to get a better grasp of writing your paper. Remember that the intro-body-conclusion format never changes.

    Introduction

    In a rhetorical analysis essay, the way to gain the reader’s trust is by showing the reader that you’ve read and fully understand the assigned text. When writing the introduction, make it short and informative.

    To start, briefly summarize the passage you’ll include in your essay in your own words; it will prove to the reader that you understand the central message of the text.

    Next, you can briefly mention the persuasive styles used by the author, and their effect.

    Lastly, formulate your opinion into a well-crafted thesis statement. It should address the ‘who,’ ‘what,’ ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions. Your rhetorical analysis thesis statement usually comes at the end of your introductory paragraph.

    Remember that your introduction is your chance to intrigue the reader about the content you’ll touch upon later in the text.

    Body Paragraphs

    After giving the reader some perspective, it’s time to do some critical analysis. A large part of your time will be focused on creating informative body paragraphs. In the body, explain the methods the author used to inform, persuade, and entertain the reader.

    • If the author used persuasive language, then say that he/she used persuasive language.
    • If the author used sympathetic language, explain it and use quotes for proof.

    Keep in mind that all writing should be consistent and have a clear structure. It’s wise to have different paragraphs explaining the author’s strategies, rather than jamming everything together.

    When identifying the author’s writing strategies, answer the following questions:

    • How does this strategy work?
    • How is the strategy working in the example?
    • Why did the author use a specific approach for this audience?
    • How did the strategy make the audience feel, react or respond?

    A couple of other things that should be taken note of within the body paragraphs are shifts in tone and diction. Don’t forget always to use proper citations in your work. In literature, the MLA format is commonly used for citations.

    Conclusion

    After writing your detailed, well-cited body paragraphs, conclude your essay. Like most other types of essays, summarise what you’ve previously elaborated on. Talk about how the author’s words have changed the opinion of their audience, or if they’ve had a significant impact on society.

    In the final sentence of your rhetorical analysis conclusion, you can provide an impactful concluding statement that demonstrates the importance of the author’s writing or how its strategies have helped shape history.

    Theme analysis essay outline
    Theme analysis essay outline, literary analysis essay

  • Reflection essay structure 2022

    Reflection essay structure

    By using a private reflection initially, you can ensure that you get the full learning opportunity without censoring yourself or being conscious of language, before deciding how best to present your reflections to your assessor. This is similar to figuring out what your argument is and taking notes before writing an essay, or to all the background work you do to solve a technical/mathematical problem that you do not include in your hand-in. Reflection essay structure

    General tips for academic reflections

    An overview of key things to keep in mind for academic reflections.

    Term How it is being used
    Academic/professional reflection Any kind of reflection that is expected to be presented for assessment in an academic, professional, or skill development context. Academic reflection will be used primarily, but refer to all three areas.
    Private reflection Reflection you do where you are the only intended audience.

    Reflection essay structure

    If you are working on your reflective essay assignment, this is a must-read article for you. Here you can find do’s and don’ts for writing a pitch-perfect reflective essay. Reflection essay structure

    Do's And Don'ts For Writing A Reflective Essay

    Reflective essays are all about expressing your ideas and emotions about certain events or phenomena. A reflective essay writing provides solid training to improve your critical thinking skills. In addition to that, it also helps in developing the ability to express an opinion on certain topics either assigned or chosen by yourself.

    If you are working on your reflective essay assignment, this is a must-read article for you. Here you can find do’s and don’ts for writing a pitch-perfect reflective essay.

    Do

    Write your thoughts in a descriptive manner. Make sure all the ideas are stated in a clear manner so it would be easy for the reader to understand what you are indenting to say.

    Keep in mind that it is still an academic paper, despite being a reflective type. Try to keep the tone and style formal throughout the paper.

    Make sure to follow a structure for an effective essay. The classical structure includes an introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion.

    You can write a reflective paper based on your personal experience but don’t forget to include some relevant facts and examples.

    Don’t

    No need to be too personal when writing a reflective paper. Despite the fact that it is based on personal experience, remember it is an academic paper.

    Don’t try to stuff everything in one essay. Choose the most important and significant topic to write about.

    Don’t try to state things in an organized manner, it is important to create a proper outline to follow when writing the essay.

    Don’t include your ideas paper in the paper randomly. Before starting to write, sort your ideas in a logical manner if you really want to communicate your ideas effectively.

    Now you know all the basic things about writing a good reflective essay. Now, you can check some sample free essays online to understand the overall structure and writing style used by authors on different reflective essay topics.

    Need help?

    Keep in mind that essay writer help is easily available now. Make use of these online services to score better.

    Reflection essay structure

    Before we proceed with writing tips and ideas on where students can get custom writing assistance, we should cover the reflective essay definition. In this respect, writing a college reflection paper implies a purposeful activity where the author analyzes experience, responses, and lessons learned. Reflection essay structure

    Don’t Know How to Write a Reflective Paper? Get Expert Help

    The process of writing an exceptional reflection paper is unlike conventional academic writing. There are many rules that differ. For instance, you may have been told never to use ‘I” in academic writing. When drafting a reflective paper, however, you are highlighting your experiences, which means that personal pronouns are allowed. In a personal reflection paper, an instructor expects to read about your feelings and subjective thoughts, which can be very different from the objective and detached approach used for conventional academic writing.

    Reflection paper format and citation rules are also very complicated and differ from one department to the next. If you are struggling with how to write a reflective essay, you don’t need to risk getting a low grade by submitting a poorly drafted paper. We have writers who have spent years perfecting their skills. They will make sure that you score highly on every project.

    Our professionals also help students who are unable to finalize their reflective tasks because of lack of time. The main aim of a self-reflective essay is to encourage the student to think objectively about feelings and actions. The process is detailed and includes brainstorming for topics and ideas, outlining, research, writing and editing. This is not only difficult but also time-consuming.

    If you have other commitments that demand your attention, finding time to carefully work on this task can be a problem. Don’t fret over it. Our fast specialists are here to make sure that you do not miss the submission deadline. They will use your instructions to research and write a reflective paper, allowing you to focus on your family and friends.

    We also offer help to learners who are struggling with linguistic problems. Even if you have time and an understanding of the reflective essay structure, it is still possible that you won’t be able to complete a quality paper if you have limited knowledge of the rules of syntax and grammar. If you are an ESL student, permit our native writers to work on your task. They will make sure that you submit writing that is completely error-free. We can also assist with editing your draft if you have already prepared one.

    Reflection essay structure

    When you are writing about a reflection, there are factors that can affect how you express it. These are: Reflection essay structure

    Topics and Prompts for Reflective Writing

    Here are a list of analytical topics for reflective writing:

    • How well did you write an assignment?
    • What is the quality of your relationship with someone?
    • What are some experiences you gained in your job?
    • How do you want to behave differently?
    • What is your process for problem solving?
    • How well did you do in school last year?

    Here are writing prompts to get you started on personal and creative reflective writing:

    • If you were an animal, what kind of animal would you be?
    • Describe your room and what you feel about it and your possessions.
    • I am comfortable when…
    • I feel angry when…
    • I feel frustrated when…
    • The most interesting story my family ever told was.
    • What do you want to do before you turn 30? (or any age or date)
    • What are some things you are grateful for and why?

    Reflection essay structure

    Reflection essay structure

    Outcome
    Reflection essay structure
    As I lay in bed, I often find myself wondering about this new world we live in. In one small second, my normal has drastically changed. Even leaving the house can fill me with fear. And I begin to explore all the different ways the world and I have changed. Reflection essay structure
    You can also explore additional examples of reflection used in reflective essays. Reflection essay structure

    Examples of Reflection in Reflective Writing

    Reflective writing isn’t as easy as you might think it would be. Since you are reflecting on yourself or your thoughts or feelings about something, this might look like:

    As I lay in bed, I often find myself wondering about this new world we live in. In one small second, my normal has drastically changed. Even leaving the house can fill me with fear. And I begin to explore all the different ways the world and I have changed.

    You can also explore additional examples of reflection used in reflective essays.

    Reflection essay structure
    Reflection essay structure

  • How to write an essay on character 2022

    How to write an essay on character

    He explains that Americans are a people that are addicted to the products of fast food. This book is compared to The Jungle which is written by another journalist Upton Sinclair. He gives the journey of a Lithuanian family, who travelled to the United States just to experience the American Dream. His expectation was shattered because he encountered the opposite. How to write an essay on character

    Character Comparison and Contrast Essay

    “Fast Food Nation” is a novel written by Eric Schlosser who is a journalist reporting on the food industry. He focuses more on the hazardous conditions and effects of eating fast foods.

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    He explains that Americans are a people that are addicted to the products of fast food. This book is compared to The Jungle which is written by another journalist Upton Sinclair. He gives the journey of a Lithuanian family, who travelled to the United States just to experience the American Dream. His expectation was shattered because he encountered the opposite.

    The family strives to get their way to survive in Chicago through the means of coning. Both books have a similar theme concerning the health of the people of America and the working conditions of people in the meat packing industry. For a deeper analysis of this subject, we will be comparing and contrasting between two major characters of each novel. The character in Fast Food Nation is known as Jurgis Rudkus while the major character in The Jungle is Kenney Dobbins.

    Starting with the similarities, they both had good character and integrity in their lives. In the beginning of the literature The Jungle, Jurgis was young strong and an honest man. Kenny had a high level of integrity to his work and family. As much as there were hardships on his way, he focused on doing the things that are right and giving his best for the company regardless of the poor working conditions. They both worked for a meat packing industry.

    Kenney was carrying crates weighing 120 pounds in a meat packing company called Monfort Slaughterhouse. His job was to carry heavy weights of meat. On the other hand Jurgis was digging tunnels. The name of the meat packing company is not specified but the location is in Chicago. Both their jobs required hard hours of labor. Of course such kinds of working opportunities were paying little with much to be done. Both Kenney and Jurgis were striving to have better lives for their families.

    In each novel, both Kenney and Jurgis get injuries while they were working. One day as Kenney was working, a crate weighing ninety pounds fell from the top level and was about to crash him. He managed to catch it but he went out of balance and caused an injury on his back (Schlosser 187). He severely herniated two of his back disks. Jurgis also attained injuries due to the labor of digging tunnels. Both of them got no serious medical attention that should have been provided by the company.

    The working conditions in both situations were poor. They became victims to the bitterness of life. Life had a way of causing oppression in their lives. According to Kenney, it was his employer while Jurgis was poverty in a foreign land. They both had challenges in their marriage but providers for their families. They were both young, Kenney was 24 years old but Jurgis age was given no specification.

    Looking at the differences, Jurgis was a foreigner who travelled from Eastern Europe to America in such of a better living. He was a Lithuanian and could speak both polish and Lutheran (Sinclair 2). On the other hand, Kenny was a born American. In line with character and integrity, Kenney was able to maintain the good moral.

    Regardless of how much his employer was oppressing him with harsh working conditions, he never gave up and stayed committed to his employer. Jurgis started off as a man of integrity but the pressures of life made him stray away. Wanting to survive in the harsh reality in America, he forgot every good moral he had and began conning, mugging people and turned out to be a criminal.

    Kenney lost his wife through divorce while Jurgis lost his wife through child birth. He lacked the finances to pay for her medical bills. Another difference between the two characters is joining of unions. Kenney refused to involve himself with unions. He considered them as groups that build a bad reputation from the employer’s perspective. Jurgis on the other hand, involves himself into a strong labor union and socialism. He also got to be part of a socialist rally. Kenney ended up being fired and living in a horrible health.

    He lost his job without any valid reason and was given no compensation. Jurgis’ involvement in the unions made him have a better life and the union rights were able to secure his position in the factory. Through socialism activities he got to be converted to a religious person and began going for missions.

    It has been clearly seen that in both novels, there is a similar concept and theme while at the same time, the approach is different. The major characters in both novels have endured hardship, disappointments and bitterness. They also had different characteristic depending on the kind of circumstances. The two characters Kenney and Jurgis have helped the world to realize the kind of conditions that are in the meat packing industries.

    How to write an essay on character

    Being very young, Max knows a little about love and sex issues. What he is actually familiar is a number of games that make people spend a lot of time before they can maneuver the chosen games properly. This style is employed by the writer employs to show how the actions of the majority, who end up failing in life, contrasts with their positions. How to write an essay on character

    Max and the Role to Be Performed

    Max is the movie star who captures the minds of the viewers. Though he is very young, he is still depicted as the most outstanding character. He is a student in his o-levels in a private school that has offered him a scholarship on the one hand. However, on the other hand, this condition depicts the amount of value attached by students’ parents.

    In this expensive and well performing school, Max shows how many functions he has to perform. It is a kind of sacrifice that all parents make, denying a number of valuable things just to make sure their kids attend appropriate schools where skilled teachers work and may boost the performance of their students. Max and his family are considered to be powerful characters who develop an idea of parental sacrifice.

    Max stands out as the most excellent example in the field of extra-curricular activities and ironically the poorest performer in class. He has dedicated all his time playing, ignoring virtually everything related to class work. He goes further to even feud with his teacher. This shows how less interested in education and how forgetful, and how ignorant he is at the expense parents who make him attending the school.

    Max is just an illustration of those students who get involved in activities that are not relevant with what they ought to be doing. They focus much on things that end up shifting their objectives in life like unnecessary visits to friends, reading irrelevant books, among others. This is how Max performs the role of a student who cannot put his personal demands and interests on the first place but follow the instructions dictated by some people around.

    Being very young, Max knows a little about love and sex issues. What he is actually familiar is a number of games that make people spend a lot of time before they can maneuver the chosen games properly. This style is employed by the writer employs to show how the actions of the majority, who end up failing in life, contrasts with their positions.

    Max has significantly changed. With some period of time, his behavior changes considerably from the one when he was a young student. The process of Max’s modification becomes evident in the movie, so that, the viewer is able to understand how the relations between a student and a teacher or a student and his parents should be developed.

    How to write an essay on character

    Now when you have already decided about the character you are about to analyze. Try to imagine him or her in flesh and blood. How do they look like? What kind of personality is it? What do you know about your character`s background, what impact did it have on him or her? What does he have to do with the story we find him in? What is his motivation? Try to outline your character. It also works well if you draw your character to help your imagination. You can also check out the character analysis essay examples. How to write an essay on character

    As we have already mentioned, the first step to make towards a good character analysis is reading the book. It may be boring, on occasion, yet it is necessary.

    Secondly, choose your character. Who speaks to in the book, who do you understand best? Here you have to think carefully so that it would be easier for you later to analyze your character.

    As the next step try to read again or at least to rethink the whole story from your characters point of view. Try to understand the way he sees the story. Why does he have this particular kind of interaction with the characters of the book, how does he react to everything that is going on around him?

    Think carefully about what you have observed about the character. What can it tell you? Remember, those characters are usually created by the authors to deliver a certain massage. Try to decode this message and give your version of what could be the purpose of creating this character. To understand better how to do it, you can read some character analysis essay sample.

    What are the types of characters?

    The correct delivery of character analysis requires the usage of certain terminology. Most importantly, you have to be accurate with identifying the type of character.

    • Protagonist/antagonist. If you’re analyzing the main character of the story, you should mention him as a protagonist, whereas if you are researching his main opponent — remember that you are talking about the antagonist.
    • Static characters. Now let us talk about the characters that are not that eye-catching, they are usually called static of flat characters. If we make one more reference to Juliet and her Romeo, in their story Balthasar, Romeo`s servant, is the flat character. He is almost invisible during the whole play, yet at the end, he is the one to come to Mantua and tell Romeo the news about Juliet`s death, which was not a death, as we all know. So, it can be said he played a fatal role in Romeo`s and Juliet`s life.
    • Dynamic characters. As opposing to the flat characters, changing or dynamic characters, even though they are still supporting, are always in the movement, they are the part of the circumstances and they also often create them. Another sample from Shakespeare`s Italian love story. Mercutio and Benvolio are supporting figures, yet they are those who did not want for the conflict between the Capulets and Montagues to be ceased. Firstly, they started the fight on the streets of Verona. Later, Mercutio, drown by jealousy and rage came to kill Romeo, but killed Benvolio instead and because of them, he got killed by Romeo. Because of all this mess, Romeo was sentenced to a life-time exile. At this point, we can say, that Mercutio and Benvolio are dynamic characters to make the whole story happen, on some point.
    • Supporting characters of the immortal play are Nurse and Friar Laurence. This type of character is called confidante. This means they also play a huge role in the story, yet positively, they help the main characters to get what they want. Just this way the Nurse and Friar Laurence have helped Romeo and Juliet to arrange the wedding, spend the night together and tried to help them escape together.
    • Stereotype character. Another type of literary character is the foil one. He is usually created to contrast and reveal the positive features of other characters in the story. In «Romeo and Juliet» this can be count Paris, who did not plan to marry Juliet for love, more for her father`s fortune she was about to inherit. When she died, he was mourning his wealth and ambitions that have now turned to dust.
    • The stock character is the type of supporting part, that is the summary of the typical people of the time and place. For example, the first time Shakespeare shows us, Romeo, he is desperately in love with lady Rosaline. We find out that she is a beautiful and kind young woman worshiped by every man in town. It somehow gives us reminiscence to Petrarca`s Beatrice and many others. What we mean, is that Rosaline, as a stock, character, is the reflection of the Medieval fashion to worship the beautiful women, often without even knowing them personally.
    • The round character is usually a black sheep. You are never really sure whether it is a positive character or not, he is very unpredictable. This kind of character can often be combined with the part of the main villain.
    • Archetypal character. Comping back again to Shakespeare`s citizens of Verona, we can also mention Sampson, the Capulet`s servant, who could not read and be even a little bit silly. This is the perfect sample of the archetypal character.

    Describe the character

    Now when you have already decided about the character you are about to analyze. Try to imagine him or her in flesh and blood. How do they look like? What kind of personality is it? What do you know about your character`s background, what impact did it have on him or her? What does he have to do with the story we find him in? What is his motivation? Try to outline your character. It also works well if you draw your character to help your imagination. You can also check out the character analysis essay examples.

    What is also important to observe for the balanced analysis, is the language your character uses. You might have noticed from the real-life experience, that some people that use lots of I, my, me, etc. can often be self-centered and those who use lots of positive adjectives like wonderful, awesome, exciting are often easy-going people with a positive attitude.

    What role does the character play?

    As we have already said, it is always important to remember, that in any fiction writing the characters are integrated into the story with a certain intention. For example, in «Les Miserables» by Victor Hugo, there was a character, named Enjolras, who was brilliantly played by Aron Tveit in Tom Hooper`s Oscar winning screen adaptation in 2012. This character became the reflection of Hugo`s own ideas about freedom, revolution, and democracy.

    Character motivation

    This has to be your personal answer to the question, why this character does what he does? Try to understand the reason for his actions no matter whether they are good or bad.

    Here, we can take a look at Shakespeare`s «Richard III». In this play, a protagonist is an evil man, who murdered his own nephews to take their crown and violated his young niece. But why did he do it?

    Richard was the youngest brother of King Edward. For his whole life, he was treated without any respect as he was severely crippled, no one took him seriously because of his disabilities, women had no interest in him. But when his brother died, he suddenly got a chance to become the king himself and make everyone, who used to laugh at him to show respect and admiration.

    Another necessary thing to mention in this kind of writing is the progress your character has accomplished throughout the book. As we know, every book is a journey not only for the readers but also for the characters. In most of the cases the characters, especially if you are observing the protagonist, make their way during the book. Sometimes they change in a good way, — in a bad way.

    How to write an essay on character

    Image Source: healthykidstoday.org How to write an essay on character

    480 Words Short Essay on Character

    Character has been defined as “the distinctive mark of an individual.” What that mark is going to be, depends partly upon nature, but largely on environment and training.

    Children are initiative creatures, but they are also endowed with reason; and character is formed, first, by inculcating ideas of right and wrong in the minds of the young and, secondly, by the exercise on the part of the children of the reasoning power on questions of right and wrong.

    All men more or less are the architects or builders of their own characters, and, if the structure is to be a fine one, the work must be commenced as early as possible.

    Character depends upon imitation, tastes, talents and habits. Imitation, in the case of the young child, is instinctive and not connected with reason, but as he grows older he chooses what to imitate.

    Image Source: healthykidstoday.org

    Then is the time for education to step in and point out what is worthy of imitation and what is unworthy, and thus he will learn to select the best models for imitation.

    Ideals of self-control, courage, benevolence, truthfulness, honesty and purity, should constantly be held up for the admiration of the young. They should be encouraged to read the biographies of great men, that they may be inspired by their example.

    It is to be remembered, however, that tastes and talents vary, and that children may not develop in the same direction and yet may be developing on right lines.

    Thus, Benjamin West was inspired by a passion for painting, Mendelssohn lived for music, Stephenson was influenced by the steam engine at the pit’s mouth, and Pope began, as a child, to write imitations of the poets.

    Just as the handwriting of no two children is alike, so no two char­acters are exactly similar, and different persons are attracted by different examples.

    Though these diversities of taste should be allowed full scope, it should never be forgotten that honour, purity and charity should be the common aim of all, what-ever their talents.

    Another important factor in the formation of character is habit. It is by habit that character is fixed, just as it is by conduct that it is indicated. The practice of shirking work quickly grows and, if allowed to obtain a firm hold, will be found most difficult to eradicate.

    One lie will lead to another; the conscience will become accustomed to wounds and finally cease to protest. Indul­gence in vice may, if frequently practiced, very quickly become almost a necessity, and so sap the powers that the vicious be­come a burden to themselves and to others.

    On the contrary good habits, though more difficult to form than bad habits, are within the power of all who are not radically weak, and, once formed, will result in the production of a healthy man, a worthy citizen, a dutiful son and a wise father.

    How to write an essay on character

    How to write an essay on character

    How to write an essay on character
    Then is the time for education to step in and point out what is worthy of imitation and what is unworthy, and thus he will learn to select the best models for imitation. How to write an essay on character
    Image Source healthykidstoday. How to write an essay on character
    How to write an essay on character
    How to write an essay on character

  • Topics for definition essays 2022

    Topics for definition essays

    After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write: Topics for definition essays

    Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.

    A thesis statement:

    • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
    • is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
    • directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
    • makes a claim that others might dispute.
    • is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

    If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)

    Topics for definition essays

    Is it substantial or not that you are stuck sincerely busy composing a definition essay and you don’t have even the remotest sign who to ask for help? You have come to the ideal locations because I will assist you with composing a top notch definition essay for ‘write my essay’ tasks. I realize it may seem a staggering task to you yet when you understand the structure of the essay and what information should be fused the essay, it will end up being a piece of cake for you. I won’t just assist you with understanding how to compose an ideal definition essay yet besides give you tricks to master it and get A grade in your assignment. Topics for definition essays

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    Is it substantial or not that you are stuck sincerely busy composing a definition essay and you don’t have even the remotest sign who to ask for help? You have come to the ideal locations because I will assist you with composing a top notch definition essay for ‘write my essay’ tasks. I realize it may seem a staggering task to you yet when you understand the structure of the essay and what information should be fused the essay, it will end up being a piece of cake for you. I won’t just assist you with understanding how to compose an ideal definition essay yet besides give you tricks to master it and get A grade in your assignment.

    First of all, you really want to understand what is a definition essay and how it varies from various types of scholarly essays. Second, you really need to analyze what you have been messing up that makes you lose your grade in your assignment, so that you take the necessary steps not to rehash the same mistakes. I will show you tips and tricks to compose your assignment like a specialist writer in thesis writing service.

    A definition essay is a sort of scholarly essay wherein the writer has to consider one specific word and he has to compose a scholastic as well as personal significance of that word. The significance of the word should be intensive and should cover all aspects. Nevertheless, composing a definition is perhaps the most challenging tasks for student because they often run out of words. It is basic to choose a word that will give a tremendous store of information to compose an essay about for essay writing service.

    You can use several tips and tricks to clarify the term. The following are a couple of tricks that will assist you with composing an astounding definition essay for ‘write my paper’ tasks:

    You must be extra cautious while picking a topic for a definition essay. There should be an enormous stack of information accessible to clarify the word you pick as your topic. You should choose a word that can assist you with constructing an essay easily. Some students choose troublesome words and they stall out in the sign of mixing of the essay. You should spend some time researching before you finish your topic.

    The second most significant stunt that will assist you with constructing a top notch definition essay is to pre-compose your essay. It will assist the online essay writing service with get-together sufficient material to work your essay without running out of words. It is indispensable to record the points and list all of the ideas on the paper going preceding adding them into your essay. You really need to peruse your draft and starting there on kill any insignificant information.

    Topics for definition essays

    Kendall’s prescient observations reflect the effects of this politics of appeasement, except those who are being appeased are not who some pundits, decrying the excessive political liberalism of the academy, have led us to believe. The greatest strength of an institution lies in its ability to persevere over time, with its most fundamental modus operandi challenged but unchanged. That has never been more true of the institution of American higher education as engendered and still practiced by historically white institutions (HWIs). Topics for definition essays

    Language of Appeasement

    By substituting diversity and inclusion rhetoric for transformative efforts to promote equity and justice, colleges have avoided recognizable institutional change, contends Dafina-Lazarus Stewart.

    Several months later, I hesitate to offer yet another election postmortem for higher education. Like many of you readers, I have read countless such essays from within and beyond the academy. Some people have argued that the rise of white supremacists (they prefer to be called the “alt-right”) was only to be expected given the proliferation of identity politics in higher education. According those observers, by providing limited space and resources on campuses for the acknowledgment and celebration of various social identity groups that are underrepresented in colleges and universities, as well as marginalized across society, it was only a matter of time before white students would want to assert themselves as well.

    The only trouble with that view, as was brilliantly enunciated by Cheryl Harris in 1993 in her discourse on whiteness as property, is that the very idea of whiteness and the racialization of white people over and against all others is the invention of propertied, Protestant Christian, Western European settlers in the Americas. Whiteness was the means of preserving their wealth and status within an ideologically theocratical capitalist system. This argument is disingenuous and ahistorical.

    Other commentators, such as Mikki Kendall recently, have noted higher education’s failure to educate its students about race and racism. In that argument, white students are rightfully presented as being allowed to believe in their own merits while at the same time denying the meritorious potential of anyone unlike them — particularly those who are members of racially minoritized groups. Despite first-year orientation diversity sessions and general-education requirements including a plethora of options to expose students to diverse perspectives (but few which present a challenge to normative worldviews), most students leave college with the same assumptions with which they entered: that the dominance and overrepresentation of certain people in college, in leadership and among the ranks of the wealthy and envied is natural and optimal. Most students — not even just white students, necessarily — believe that advancement and opportunity is exclusively a function of merit, despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary, as noted by legal and educational scholar Lani Guinier.

    What I have not yet seen in these electoral postmortems seeking to diagnose how working-class white people in the United States seemingly voted against their own economic interests leading to the election of Donald J. Trump is: 1) an acknowledgment by higher education scholars that it was as much the vote of college-educated, middle-class white men and women that informed this presidential election’s outcomes (see here), and 2) that reality is a result of the decision of historically white colleges and universities to engage a politics of appeasement instead of a true liberal education.

    Kendall’s prescient observations reflect the effects of this politics of appeasement, except those who are being appeased are not who some pundits, decrying the excessive political liberalism of the academy, have led us to believe. The greatest strength of an institution lies in its ability to persevere over time, with its most fundamental modus operandi challenged but unchanged. That has never been more true of the institution of American higher education as engendered and still practiced by historically white institutions (HWIs).

    As I shared during a talk at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign recently, acknowledgment and celebration of diversity were not the primary goals of the student activists of the 1960s through the 1980s, who pushed for ethnic studies departments, student centers and increased recruitment and retention efforts focused on racially minoritized students, faculty members and staff members. No, it was through such avenues that those generations of activists hoped to inspire institutional transformation through the presence of a critical mass of people of color on campuses.

    That is where the politics of appeasement comes into play. Underestimating institutional stability, HWI university leaders quieted complaints and concerns from opposing sides: on the one hand, students of color and their supporters, and on the other, trustees and nervous donors — liberal and conservative — who wanted their colleges and universities out of unflattering public spotlight. The same type of appeasement is happening in the current generation of student activism, whose demands sound hauntingly familiar:

    • Advance more racially minoritized faculty and staff through tenure and promotion and into senior-level roles.
    • Admit more racially minoritized students and offer more scholarships to help them afford to attend and achieve a degree.
    • Train faculty to effectively lead and deal with issues of equity in the classroom.
    • Reduce and respond to incidents of microaggressions on the campus.
    • Hire counseling center staff members who are competent to address the psychological stress of minoritized students.
    • Create safe spaces on campus where minoritized students of various identities can share, heal and organize.
    • Recognize the multiple identities of minoritized students and the intersecting oppressions they face on the campus.

    In response, administrative leaders of HWIs are hiring chief diversity officers, establishing special endowments to support increased financial aid, launching cluster hires for faculty of color and investing in diversity programming, speakers and consultants. Those efforts seek to quiet the protesters, trustees and donors at the same time, all the while creating little systemic or transformative change on the campus.

    Diversity and Inclusion vs. Equity and Social Justice

    Such “Kool-Aid” approaches (again, check out my talk at UIUC) leave not only the institution fundamentally unchanged but also its students. Students with minoritized identities continue to face the same indignities and hostile campus climates, despite moderate increases in the compositional diversity of the campus. But until they are no longer students, they often fail to recognize that what they asked for was insufficient to change the campus culture and climate. Students for whom HWIs were designed to educate for societal leadership receive not only no challenges to their (perhaps unconscious) internalized sense of racial, ethnic, sexual, gender and social class dominance but also reinforcement of the notion that diversity and inclusion are achieved by having people with different backgrounds in the same spaces.

    As I shared in my remarks at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, diversity and inclusion rhetoric asks fundamentally different questions and is concerned with fundamentally different issues than efforts seeking equity and justice.

    • Diversity asks, “Who’s in the room?” Equity responds: “Who is trying to get in the room but can’t? Whose presence in the room is under constant threat of erasure?”
    • Inclusion asks, “Has everyone’s ideas been heard?” Justice responds, “Whose ideas won’t be taken as seriously because they aren’t in the majority?”
    • Diversity asks, “How many more of [pick any minoritized identity] group do we have this year than last?” Equity responds, “What conditions have we created that maintain certain groups as the perpetual majority here?”
    • Inclusion asks, “Is this environment safe for everyone to feel like they belong?” Justice challenges, “Whose safety is being sacrificed and minimized to allow others to be comfortable maintaining dehumanizing views?”
    • Diversity asks, “Isn’t it separatist to provide funding for safe spaces and separate student centers?” Equity answers, “What are people experiencing on campus that they don’t feel safe when isolated and separated from others like themselves?”
    • Inclusion asks, “Wouldn’t it be a great program to have a panel debate Black Lives Matter? We had a Black Lives Matter activist here last semester, so this semester we should invite someone from the alt-right.” Justice answers, “Why would we allow the humanity and dignity of people or our students to be the subject of debate or the target of harassment and hate speech?”
    • Diversity celebrates increases in numbers that still reflect minoritized status on campus and incremental growth. Equity celebrates reductions in harm, revisions to abusive systems and increases in supports for people’s life chances as reported by those who have been targeted.
    • Inclusion celebrates awards for initiatives and credits itself for having a diverse candidate pool. Justice celebrates getting rid of practices and policies that were having disparate impacts on minoritized groups.

    By substituting diversity and inclusion rhetoric for transformative efforts to promote equity and justice, HWIs have appeased their constituents and avoided recognizable institutional change. But it is time for historically white institutions in American higher education to pursue real change and abandon the politics of appeasement.

    A truly democratic education must not be ideologically neutral; rather, it must ardently pursue the preparation of students for engaged citizenship in an ostensibly democratic society. Whether HWI leaders will gather the institutional will and the moral and ethical courage to provoke and institute real, substantive institutional transformation is unknown. The first step on that road, however, is to make equity and justice the yardstick by which leaders measure progress instead of merely diversity and inclusion.

    Topics for definition essays

    [41] M. Luther King Jr, “Presentation at the Second National Convention of the Medical Committee for Human Rights,” Chicago, March 25, 1966. Topics for definition essays

    STUDENT ESSAY The Disproportional Impact of COVID-19 on African Americans

    We all have been affected by the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, the impact of the pandemic and its consequences are felt differently depending on our status as individuals and as members of society. While some try to adapt to working online, homeschooling their children and ordering food via Instacart, others have no choice but to be exposed to the virus while keeping society functioning. Our different social identities and the social groups we belong to determine our inclusion within society and, by extension, our vulnerability to epidemics.

    COVID-19 is killing people on a large scale. As of October 10, 2020, more than 7.7 million people across every state in the United States and its four territories had tested positive for COVID-19. According to the New York Times database, at least 213,876 people with the virus have died in the United States. [1] However, these alarming numbers give us only half of the picture; a closer look at data by different social identities (such as class, gender, age, race, and medical history) shows that minorities have been disproportionally affected by the pandemic. These minorities in the United States are not having their right to health fulfilled.

    According to the World Health Organization’s report Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health, “poor and unequal living conditions are the consequences of deeper structural conditions that together fashion the way societies are organized—poor social policies and programs, unfair economic arrangements, and bad politics.” [2] This toxic combination of factors as they play out during this time of crisis, and as early news on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic pointed out, is disproportionately affecting African American communities in the United States. I recognize that the pandemic has had and is having devastating effects on other minorities as well, but space does not permit this essay to explore the impact on other minority groups.

    Employing a human rights lens in this analysis helps us translate needs and social problems into rights, focusing our attention on the broader sociopolitical structural context as the cause of the social problems. Human rights highlight the inherent dignity and worth of all people, who are the primary rights-holders. [3] Governments (and other social actors, such as corporations) are the duty-bearers, and as such have the obligation to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights. [4] Human rights cannot be separated from the societal contexts in which they are recognized, claimed, enforced, and fulfilled. Specifically, social rights, which include the right to health, can become important tools for advancing people’s citizenship and enhancing their ability to participate as active members of society. [5] Such an understanding of social rights calls our attention to the concept of equality, which requires that we place a greater emphasis on “solidarity” and the “collective.” [6] Furthermore, in order to generate equality, solidarity, and social integration, the fulfillment of social rights is not optional. [7] In order to fulfill social integration, social policies need to reflect a commitment to respect and protect the most vulnerable individuals and to create the conditions for the fulfillment of economic and social rights for all.

    Disproportional impact of COVID-19 on African Americans

    As noted by Samuel Dickman et al.:

    economic inequality in the US has been increasing for decades and is now among the highest in developed countries … As economic inequality in the US has deepened, so too has inequality in health. Both overall and government health spending are higher in the US than in other countries, yet inadequate insurance coverage, high-cost sharing by patients, and geographical barriers restrict access to care for many. [8]

    For instance, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation, in 2018, 11.7% of African Americans in the United States had no health insurance, compared to 7.5% of whites. [9]

    Prior to the Affordable Care Act—enacted into law in 2010—about 20% of African Americans were uninsured. This act helped lower the uninsured rate among nonelderly African Americans by more than one-third between 2013 and 2016, from 18.9% to 11.7%. However, even after the law’s passage, African Americans have higher uninsured rates than whites (7.5%) and Asian Americans (6.3%). [10] The uninsured are far more likely than the insured to forgo needed medical visits, tests, treatments, and medications because of cost.

    As the COVID-19 virus made its way throughout the United States, testing kits were distributed equally among labs across the 50 states, without consideration of population density or actual needs for testing in those states. An opportunity to stop the spread of the virus during its early stages was missed, with serious consequences for many Americans. Although there is a dearth of race-disaggregated data on the number of people tested, the data that are available highlight African Americans’ overall lack of access to testing. For example, in Kansas, as of June 27, according to the COVID Racial Data Tracker, out of 94,780 tests, only 4,854 were from black Americans and 50,070 were from whites. However, blacks make up almost a third of the state’s COVID-19 deaths (59 of 208). And while in Illinois the total numbers of confirmed cases among blacks and whites were almost even, the test numbers show a different picture: 220,968 whites were tested, compared to only 78,650 blacks. [11]

    Similarly, American Public Media reported on the COVID-19 mortality rate by race/ethnicity through July 21, 2020, including Washington, DC, and 45 states (see figure 1). These data, while showing an alarming death rate for all races, demonstrate how minorities are hit harder and how, among minority groups, the African American population in many states bears the brunt of the pandemic’s health impact.

    Approximately 97.9 out of every 100,000 African Americans have died from COVID-19, a mortality rate that is a third higher than that for Latinos (64.7 per 100,000), and more than double than that for whites (46.6 per 100,000) and Asians (40.4 per 100,000). The overrepresentation of African Americans among confirmed COVID-19 cases and number of deaths underscores the fact that the coronavirus pandemic, far from being an equalizer, is amplifying or even worsening existing social inequalities tied to race, class, and access to the health care system.

    Considering how African Americans and other minorities are overrepresented among those getting infected and dying from COVID-19, experts recommend that more testing be done in minority communities and that more medical services be provided. [12] Although the law requires insurers to cover testing for patients who go to their doctor’s office or who visit urgent care or emergency rooms, patients are fearful of ending up with a bill if their visit does not result in a COVID test. Furthermore, minority patients who lack insurance or are underinsured are less likely to be tested for COVID-19, even when experiencing alarming symptoms. These inequitable outcomes suggest the importance of increasing the number of testing centers and contact tracing in communities where African Americans and other minorities reside; providing testing beyond symptomatic individuals; ensuring that high-risk communities receive more health care workers; strengthening social provision programs to address the immediate needs of this population (such as food security, housing, and access to medicines); and providing financial protection for currently uninsured workers.

    Social determinants of health and the pandemic’s impact on African Americans’ health outcomes

    In international human rights law, the right to health is a claim to a set of social arrangements—norms, institutions, laws, and enabling environment—that can best secure the enjoyment of this right. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights sets out the core provision relating to the right to health under international law (article 12). [13] The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights is the body responsible for interpreting the covenant. [14] In 2000, the committee adopted a general comment on the right to health recognizing that the right to health is closely related to and dependent on the realization of other human rights. [15] In addition, this general comment interprets the right to health as an inclusive right extending not only to timely and appropriate health care but also to the determinants of health. [16] I will reflect on four determinants of health—racism and discrimination, poverty, residential segregation, and underlying medical conditions—that have a significant impact on the health outcomes of African Americans.

    Racism and discrimination

    In spite of growing interest in understanding the association between the social determinants of health and health outcomes, for a long time many academics, policy makers, elected officials, and others were reluctant to identify racism as one of the root causes of racial health inequities. [17] To date, many of the studies conducted to investigate the effect of racism on health have focused mainly on interpersonal racial and ethnic discrimination, with comparatively less emphasis on investigating the health outcomes of structural racism. [18] The latter involves interconnected institutions whose linkages are historically rooted and culturally reinforced. [19] In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, acts of discrimination are taking place in a variety of contexts (for example, social, political, and historical). In some ways, the pandemic has exposed existing racism and discrimination.

    Poverty (low-wage jobs, insurance coverage, homelessness, and jails and prisons)

    Data drawn from the 2018 Current Population Survey to assess the characteristics of low-income families by race and ethnicity shows that of the 7.5 million low-income families with children in the United States, 20.8% were black or African American (while their percentage of the population in 2018 was only 13.4%). [20] Low-income racial and ethnic minorities tend to live in densely populated areas and multigenerational households. These living conditions make it difficult for low-income families to take necessary precautions for their safety and the safety of their loved ones on a regular basis. [21] This fact becomes even more crucial during a pandemic.

    Low-wage jobs: The types of work where people in some racial and ethnic groups are overrepresented can also contribute to their risk of getting sick with COVID-19. Nearly 40% of African American workers, more than seven million, are low-wage workers and have jobs that deny them even a single paid sick day. Workers without paid sick leave might be more likely to continue to work even when they are sick. [22] This can increase workers’ exposure to other workers who may be infected with the COVID-19 virus.

    Similarly, the Centers for Disease Control has noted that many African Americans who hold low-wage but essential jobs (such as food service, public transit, and health care) are required to continue to interact with the public, despite outbreaks in their communities, which exposes them to higher risks of COVID-19 infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control, nearly a quarter of employed Hispanic and black or African American workers are employed in service industry jobs, compared to 16% of non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans make up 12% of all employed workers but account for 30% of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses, who face significant exposure to the coronavirus. [23]

    In 2018, 45% of low-wage workers relied on an employer for health insurance. This situation forces low-wage workers to continue to go to work even when they are not feeling well. Some employers allow their workers to be absent only when they test positive for COVID-19. Given the way the virus spreads, by the time a person knows they are infected, they have likely already infected many others in close contact with them both at home and at work. [24]

    Homelessness: Staying home is not an option for the homeless. African Americans, despite making up just 13% of the US population, account for about 40% of the nation’s homeless population, according to the Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. [25] Given that people experiencing homelessness often live in close quarters, have compromised immune systems, and are aging, they are exceptionally vulnerable to communicable diseases—including the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

    Jails and prisons: Nearly 2.2 million people are in US jails and prisons, the highest rate in the world. According to the US Bureau of Justice, in 2018, the imprisonment rate among black men was 5.8 times that of white men, while the imprisonment rate among black women was 1.8 times the rate among white women. [26] This overrepresentation of African Americans in US jails and prisons is another indicator of the social and economic inequality affecting this population.

    According to the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment 14, “states are under the obligation to respect the right to health by, inter alia, refraining from denying or limiting equal access for all persons—including prisoners or detainees, minorities, asylum seekers and illegal immigrants—to preventive, curative, and palliative health services.” [27] Moreover, “states have an obligation to ensure medical care for prisoners at least equivalent to that available to the general population.” [28] However, there has been a very limited response to preventing transmission of the virus within detention facilities, which cannot achieve the physical distancing needed to effectively prevent the spread of COVID-19. [29]

    Segregation affects people’s access to healthy foods and green space. It can also increase excess exposure to pollution and environmental hazards, which in turn increases the risk for diabetes and heart and kidney diseases. [30] African Americans living in impoverished, segregated neighborhoods may live farther away from grocery stores, hospitals, and other medical facilities. [31] These and other social and economic inequalities, more so than any genetic or biological predisposition, have also led to higher rates of African Americans contracting the coronavirus. To this effect, sociologist Robert Sampson states that the coronavirus is exposing class and race-based vulnerabilities. He refers to this factor as “toxic inequality,” especially the clustering of COVID-19 cases by community, and reminds us that African Americans, even if they are at the same level of income or poverty as white Americans or Latino Americans, are much more likely to live in neighborhoods that have concentrated poverty, polluted environments, lead exposure, higher rates of incarceration, and higher rates of violence. [32]

    Many of these factors lead to long-term health consequences. The pandemic is concentrating in urban areas with high population density, which are, for the most part, neighborhoods where marginalized and minority individuals live. In times of COVID-19, these concentrations place a high burden on the residents and on already stressed hospitals in these regions. Strategies most recommended to control the spread of COVID-19—social distancing and frequent hand washing—are not always practical for those who are incarcerated or for the millions who live in highly dense communities with precarious or insecure housing, poor sanitation, and limited access to clean water.

    Underlying health conditions

    African Americans have historically been disproportionately diagnosed with chronic diseases such as asthma, hypertension and diabetes—underlying conditions that may make COVID-19 more lethal. Perhaps there has never been a pandemic that has brought these disparities so vividly into focus.

    Doctor Anthony Fauci, an immunologist who has been the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases since 1984, has noted that “it is not that [African Americans] are getting infected more often. It’s that when they do get infected, their underlying medical conditions … wind them up in the ICU and ultimately give them a higher death rate.” [33]

    One of the highest risk factors for COVID-19-related death among African Americans is hypertension. A recent study by Khansa Ahmad et al. analyzed the correlation between poverty and cardiovascular diseases, an indicator of why so many black lives are lost in the current health crisis. The authors note that the American health care system has not yet been able to address the higher propensity of lower socioeconomic classes to suffer from cardiovascular disease. [34] Besides having higher prevalence of chronic conditions compared to whites, African Americans experience higher death rates. These trends existed prior to COVID-19, but this pandemic has made them more visible and worrisome.

    Addressing the impact of COVID-19 on African Americans: A human rights-based approach

    The racially disparate death rate and socioeconomic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the discriminatory enforcement of pandemic-related restrictions stand in stark contrast to the United States’ commitment to eliminate all forms of racial discrimination. In 1965, the United States signed the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which it ratified in 1994. Article 2 of the convention contains fundamental obligations of state parties, which are further elaborated in articles 5, 6, and 7. [35] Article 2 of the convention stipulates that “each State Party shall take effective measures to review governmental, national and local policies, and to amend, rescind or nullify any laws and regulations which have the effect of creating or perpetuating racial discrimination wherever it exists” and that “each State Party shall prohibit and bring to an end, by all appropriate means, including legislation as required by circumstances, racial discrimination by any persons, group or organization.” [36]

    Perhaps this crisis will not only greatly affect the health of our most vulnerable community members but also focus public attention on their rights and safety—or lack thereof. Disparate COVID-19 mortality rates among the African American population reflect longstanding inequalities rooted in systemic and pervasive problems in the United States (for example, racism and the inadequacy of the country’s health care system). As noted by Audrey Chapman, “the purpose of a human right is to frame public policies and private behaviors so as to protect and promote the human dignity and welfare of all members and groups within society, particularly those who are vulnerable and poor, and to effectively implement them.” [37] A deeper awareness of inequity and the role of social determinants demonstrates the importance of using right to health paradigms in response to the pandemic.

    The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has proposed some guidelines regarding states’ obligation to fulfill economic and social rights: availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality. These four interrelated elements are essential to the right to health. They serve as a framework to evaluate states’ performance in relation to their obligation to fulfill these rights. In the context of this pandemic, it is worthwhile to raise the following questions: What can governments and nonstate actors do to avoid further marginalizing or stigmatizing this and other vulnerable populations? How can health justice and human rights-based approaches ground an effective response to the pandemic now and build a better world afterward? What can be done to ensure that responses to COVID-19 are respectful of the rights of African Americans? These questions demand targeted responses not just in treatment but also in prevention. The following are just some initial reflections:

    First, we need to keep in mind that treating people with respect and human dignity is a fundamental obligation, and the first step in a health crisis. This includes the recognition of the inherent dignity of people, the right to self-determination, and equality for all individuals. A commitment to cure and prevent COVID-19 infections must be accompanied by a renewed commitment to restore justice and equity.

    Second, we need to strike a balance between mitigation strategies and the protection of civil liberties, without destroying the economy and material supports of society, especially as they relate to minorities and vulnerable populations. As stated in the Siracusa Principles, “[state restrictions] are only justified when they support a legitimate aim and are: provided for by law, strictly necessary, proportionate, of limited duration, and subject to review against abusive applications.” [38] Therefore, decisions about individual and collective isolation and quarantine must follow standards of fair and equal treatment and avoid stigma and discrimination against individuals or groups. Vulnerable populations require direct consideration with regard to the development of policies that can also protect and secure their inalienable rights.

    Third, long-term solutions require properly identifying and addressing the underlying obstacles to the fulfillment of the right to health, particularly as they affect the most vulnerable. For example, we need to design policies aimed at providing universal health coverage, paid family leave, and sick leave. We need to reduce food insecurity, provide housing, and ensure that our actions protect the climate. Moreover, we need to strengthen mental health and substance abuse services, since this pandemic is affecting people’s mental health and exacerbating ongoing issues with mental health and chemical dependency. As noted earlier, violations of the human rights principles of equality and nondiscrimination were already present in US society prior to the pandemic. However, the pandemic has caused “an unprecedented combination of adversities which presents a serious threat to the mental health of entire populations, and especially to groups in vulnerable situations.” [39] As Dainius Pūras has noted, “the best way to promote good mental health is to invest in protective environments in all settings.” [40] These actions should take place as we engage in thoughtful conversations that allow us to assess the situation, to plan and implement necessary interventions, and to evaluate their effectiveness.

    Finally, it is important that we collect meaningful, systematic, and disaggregated data by race, age, gender, and class. Such data are useful not only for promoting public trust but for understanding the full impact of this pandemic and how different systems of inequality intersect, affecting the lived experiences of minority groups and beyond. It is also important that such data be made widely available, so as to enhance public awareness of the problem and inform interventions and public policies.

    Conclusion

    In 1966, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. said, “Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health is the most shocking and inhuman.” [41] More than 54 years later, African Americans still suffer from injustices that are at the basis of income and health disparities. We know from previous experiences that epidemics place increased demands on scarce resources and enormous stress on social and economic systems.

    A deeper understanding of the social determinants of health in the context of the current crisis, and of the role that these factors play in mediating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on African Americans’ health outcomes, increases our awareness of the indivisibility of all human rights and the collective dimension of the right to health. We need a more explicit equity agenda that encompasses both formal and substantive equality. [42] Besides nondiscrimination and equality, participation and accountability are equally crucial.

    Unfortunately, as suggested by the limited available data, African American communities and other minorities in the United States are bearing the brunt of the current pandemic. The COVID-19 crisis has served to unmask higher vulnerabilities and exposure among people of color. A thorough reflection on how to close this gap needs to start immediately. Given that the COVID-19 pandemic is more than just a health crisis—it is disrupting and affecting every aspect of life (including family life, education, finances, and agricultural production)—it requires a multisectoral approach. We need to build stronger partnerships among the health care sector and other social and economic sectors. Working collaboratively to address the many interconnected issues that have emerged or become visible during this pandemic—particularly as they affect marginalized and vulnerable populations—offers a more effective strategy.

    Moreover, as Delan Devakumar et al. have noted:

    the strength of a healthcare system is inseparable from broader social systems that surround it. Health protection relies not only on a well-functioning health system with universal coverage, which the US could highly benefit from, but also on social inclusion, justice, and solidarity. In the absence of these factors, inequalities are magnified and scapegoating persists, with discrimination remaining long after. [43]

    This current public health crisis demonstrates that we are all interconnected and that our well-being is contingent on that of others. A renewed and healthy society is possible only if governments and public authorities commit to reducing vulnerability and the impact of ill-health by taking steps to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to health. [44] It requires that government and nongovernment actors establish policies and programs that promote the right to health in practice. [45] It calls for a shared commitment to justice and equality for all.

    Maritza Vasquez Reyes, MA, LCSW, CCM, is a PhD student and Research and Teaching Assistant at the UConn School of Social Work, University of Connecticut, Hartford, USA.

    Please address correspondence to the author. Email: maritzavasquezreyes@uconn.edu.

    Competing interests: None declared.

    Copyright © 2020 Vasquez Reyes. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    References

    [1] “Coronavirus in the U.S.: Latest map and case count,” New York Times (October 10, 2020). Available at https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/us/coronavirus-us-cases.html.

    [2] World Health Organization Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health (Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008), p. 1.

    [3] S. Hertel and L. Minkler, Economic rights: Conceptual, measurement, and policy issues (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007); S. Hertel and K. Libal, Human rights in the United States: Beyond exceptionalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011); D. Forsythe, Human rights in international relations, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

    [4] Danish Institute for Human Rights, National action plans on business and human rights (Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Human Rights, 2014).

    [5] J. R. Blau and A. Moncada, Human rights: Beyond the liberal vision (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005).

    [6] J. R. Blau. “Human rights: What the United States might learn from the rest of the world and, yes, from American sociology,” Sociological Forum 31/4 (2016), pp. 1126–1139; K. G. Young and A. Sen, The future of economic and social rights (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2019).

    [7] Young and Sen (see note 6).

    [8] S. Dickman, D. Himmelstein, and S. Woolhandler, “Inequality and the health-care system in the USA,” Lancet, 389/10077 (2017), p. 1431.

    [9] S. Artega, K. Orgera, and A. Damico, “Changes in health insurance coverage and health status by race and ethnicity, 2010–2018 since the ACA,” KFF (March 5, 2020). Available at https://www.kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/changes-in-health-coverage-by-race-and-ethnicity-since-the-aca-2010-2018/.

    [10] H. Sohn, “Racial and ethnic disparities in health insurance coverage: Dynamics of gaining and losing coverage over the life-course,” Population Research and Policy Review 36/2 (2017), pp. 181–201.

    [11] Atlantic Monthly Group, COVID tracking project. Available at https://covidtracking.com.

    [12] “Why the African American community is being hit hard by COVID-19,” Healthline (April 13, 2020). Available at https://www.healthline.com/health-news/covid-19-affecting-people-of-color#What-can-be-done?.

    [13] World Health Organization, 25 questions and answers on health and human rights (Albany: World Health Organization, 2002).

    [14] Ibid; Hertel and Libal (see note 3).

    [17] Z. Bailey, N. Krieger, M. Agénor et al., “Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: Evidence and interventions,” Lancet 389/10077 (2017), pp. 1453–1463.

    [20] US Census. Available at https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2019/demo/p60-266.html.

    [21] M. Simms, K. Fortuny, and E. Henderson, Racial and ethnic disparities among low-income families (Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Publications, 2009).

    [23] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Equity Considerations and Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups (2020). Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html.

    [24] Artega et al. (see note 9).

    [25] K. Allen, “More than 50% of homeless families are black, government report finds,” ABC News (January 22, 2020). Available at https://abcnews.go.com/US/50-homeless-families-black-government-report-finds/story?id=68433643.

    [26] A. Carson, Prisoners in 2018 (US Department of Justice, 2020). Available at https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p18.pdf.

    [27] United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14, The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health, UN Doc. E/C.12/2000/4 (2000).

    [28] J. J. Amon, “COVID-19 and detention,” Health and Human Rights 22/1 (2020), pp. 367–370.

    [30] L. Pirtle and N. Whitney, “Racial capitalism: A fundamental cause of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic inequities in the United States,” Health Education and Behavior 47/4 (2020), pp. 504–508.

    [31] Ibid; R. Sampson, “The neighborhood context of well-being,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46/3 (2003), pp. S53–S64.

    [32] C. Walsh, “Covid-19 targets communities of color,” Harvard Gazette (April 14, 2020). Available at https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/04/health-care-disparities-in-the-age-of-coronavirus/.

    [33] B. Lovelace Jr., “White House officials worry the coronavirus is hitting African Americans worse than others,” CNBC News (April 7, 2020). Available at https://www.cnbc.com/2020/04/07/white-house-officials-worry-the-coronavirus-is-hitting-african-americans-worse-than-others.html.

    [34] K. Ahmad, E. W. Chen, U. Nazir, et al., “Regional variation in the association of poverty and heart failure mortality in the 3135 counties of the United States,” Journal of the American Heart Association 8/18 (2019).

    [35] D. Desierto, “We can’t breathe: UN OHCHR experts issue joint statement and call for reparations” (EJIL Talk), Blog of the European Journal of International Law (June 5, 2020). Available at https://www.ejiltalk.org/we-cant-breathe-un-ohchr-experts-issue-joint-statement-and-call-for-reparations/.

    [36] International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, G. A. Res. 2106 (XX) (1965), art. 2.

    [37] A. Chapman, Global health, human rights and the challenge of neoliberal policies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), p. 17.

    [38] N. Sun, “Applying Siracusa: A call for a general comment on public health emergencies,” Health and Human Rights Journal (April 23, 2020).

    [39] D. Pūras, “COVID-19 and mental health: Challenges ahead demand changes,” Health and Human Rights Journal (May 14, 2020).

    [41] M. Luther King Jr, “Presentation at the Second National Convention of the Medical Committee for Human Rights,” Chicago, March 25, 1966.

    [42] Chapman (see note 35).

    [43] D. Devakumar, G. Shannon, S. Bhopal, and I. Abubakar, “Racism and discrimination in COVID-19 responses,” Lancet 395/10231 (2020), p. 1194.

    [44] World Health Organization (see note 12).

    Topics for definition essays

    Topics for definition essays

    Recent Viewpoints
    Topics for definition essays
    Social determinants of health and the pandemic’s impact on African Americans’ health outcomes Topics for definition essays
    Although there is a dearth of race-disaggregated data on the number of people tested, the data that are available highlight African Americans overall lack of access to testing. Topics for definition essays
    Topics for definition essays
    Topics for definition essays

  • Essay headline 2022

    Essay headline

    I prefer a one-line header. Put your name on the left, your LSAC number in the middle, and the words “Personal Statement,” followed by a page number, on the right. It looks like this: Essay headline

    ⭐️How to Format Your Law School Personal Statement

    Check the application of every school to which you’re applying, but in general, you should follow these guidelines.

    Header

    I prefer a one-line header. Put your name on the left, your LSAC number in the middle, and the words “Personal Statement,” followed by a page number, on the right. It looks like this:

    In case you’re not comfortable with Word headers, I’ve made a correctly formatted .docx file with a one-line header. Click here to download the sample text, then substitute your information for the placeholders.

    You can also put all the information on the right-hand side, in three lines, like this:

    If you use a three-line header on the first page, you may want to use a shorter header—name, page number—on subsequent pages.

    The Essay Body

    • Don’t give your essay a title.
    • Use twelve-point, Times New Roman font (an eleven-point font is fine too if the application doesn’t specify)
    • Use one-inch margins all around.
    • Double-space your essay.
    • Left-align or justify your essay.
    • Add half-inch indentations to each paragraph.
    • Don’t add an extra return between paragraphs.
    • Use one space after periods.

    I’ve implemented this formatting in the personal statement format sample.

    Essay headline

    For student papers, the abstract (max: 250 words) is entirely optional. However, if your instructor does require a summary of your paper, then place the abstract on its own page, right after the title page. Centre the word “Abstract” in bold font and left-align the actual summary. Use a single paragraph and don’t indent the first line. Essay headline

    The Basics

    Essay Components

    An APA paper has three parts:

    1. The Title Page
    2. The Essay
    3. The Reference List

    If your instructor would like an abstract, you can insert it after the title page. It’s best to separate each section with a page break (Insert > Page Break).

    You have some options when it comes to choosing a font. Here are some acceptable choices:

    • Sans-Serif font: Calibri (size 11), Arial (size 11)
    • Serif font: Times New Roman (size 12), Georgia (size 11)

    Whichever one you choose, make sure you use it throughout your entire essay. Footnotes are typically in size 10 font, and for captions to tables and figures please use a font size between 8 and 14.

    Margins

    Since 2007, the default margin for any Word document has been 1 inch all around. Fortunately, APA format has the same requirement. If for some reason you need to fix the margins, go to Page Layout > Margins > Normal.

    Spacing

    All the text in your essay should be double-spaced. To make this change quickly, first press Ctrl + A to highlight all text and then press Home > Line and Paragraph Spacing (symbol) > 2.0. Make sure you also click on “Remove Space After Paragraph.” There’s no need to provide extra spaces between paragraphs or around headings.

    Essay headline

    For example, you may write that in the depression patients you met and talked with, it seems they lack a luster for life because of an emotional block or an emotional trauma or loss that keeps them from seeing beyond it. Usually the APA calls for a second- or third-person voice in abstracts, but first-person is acceptable, according to Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL). Essay headline

    Abstract

    You will need to create an abstract, a concise summary of the main points of your essay. Since your essay is reflective and not founded much on research, if any, make the abstract of summary of your main ideas.

    For example, you may write that in the depression patients you met and talked with, it seems they lack a luster for life because of an emotional block or an emotional trauma or loss that keeps them from seeing beyond it. Usually the APA calls for a second- or third-person voice in abstracts, but first-person is acceptable, according to Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL).

    Do not indent the abstract. Instead, make it into block text form so it looks like a vertical rectangle of words. Include your conclusion points in the essay, too, which for a reflective essay may be your final remarks or opinions on a topic. Keep the abstract to 150 to 250 words.

    Essay headline

    Researchers are busy and there will always be more articles to read than time to read them. Good titles help readers find your research, and decide whether to keep reading. Search engines use titles to retrieve relevant articles based on users’ keyword searches. Once readers find your article, they’ll use the title as the first filter to decide whether your research is what they’re looking for. A strong and specific title is the first step toward citations, inclusion in meta-analyses, and influencing your field. Essay headline

    Writing tips

    Getting the title right can be more difficult than it seems, and researchers refine their writing skills throughout their career. Some journals even help editors to re-write their titles during the publication process!

    Do

    1. Keep it concise and informative
      What’s appropriate for titles varies greatly across disciplines. Take a look at some articles published in your field, and check the journal guidelines for character limits. Aim for fewer than 12 words, and check for journal specific word limits.
    2. Write for your audience
      Consider who your primary audience is: are they specialists in your specific field, are they cross-disciplinary, are they non-specialists?
    3. Entice the reader
      Find a way to pique your readers’ interest, give them enough information to keep them reading.
    4. Incorporate important keywords
      Consider what about your article will be most interesting to your audience: Most readers come to an article from a search engine, so take some time and include the important ones in your title!
    5. Write in sentence case
      In scientific writing, titles are given in sentence case. Capitalize only the first word of the text, proper nouns, and genus names. See our examples below.

    Don’t

    1. Write your title as a question
      In most cases, you shouldn’t need to frame your title as a question. You have the answers, you know what you found. Writing your title as a question might draw your readers in, but it’s more likely to put them off.
    2. Sensationalize your research
      Be honest with yourself about what you truly discovered. A sensationalized or dramatic title might make a few extra people read a bit further into your article, but you don’t want them disappointed when they get to the results.

    Examples…

    Format: Prevalence of [disease] in [population] in [location]

    Example: Prevalence of tuberculosis in homeless women in San Francisco

    Format: Risk factors for [condition] among [population] in [location]

    Example: Risk factors for preterm births among low-income women in Mexico City

    Format (systematic review/meta-analysis): Effectiveness of [treatment] for [disease] in [population] for [outcome] : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Example: Effectiveness of Hepatitis B treatment in HIV-infected adolescents in the prevention of liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Format (clinical trial): [Intervention] improved [symptoms] of [disease] in [population] : A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Example: Using a sleep app lessened insomnia in post-menopausal women in southwest United States: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Format (general molecular studies): Characterization/identification/evaluation of [molecule name] in/from [organism/tissue] (b y [specific biological methods] )

    Example: Identification of putative Type-I sex pheromone biosynthesis-related genes expressed in the female pheromone gland of Streltzoviella insularis

    Format (general molecular studies): [specific methods/analysis] of organism/tissue reveal insights into [function/role] of [molecule name] in [biological process]

    Example: Transcriptome landscape of Rafflesia cantleyi floral buds reveals insights into the roles of transcription factors and phytohormones in flower development

    Format (software/method papers): [tool/method/software] for [what purpose] in [what research area]

    Example: CRISPR-based tools for targeted transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in plants

    Tip: How to edit your work

    Editing is challenging, especially if you are acting as both a writer and an editor. Read our guidelines for advice on how to refine your work, including useful tips for setting your intentions, re-review, and consultation with colleagues.

    • How to Write a Great Title
    • How to Write an Abstract
    • How to Write Your Methods
    • How to Report Statistics
    • How to Write Discussions and Conclusions
    • How to Edit Your Work

    There’s a lot to consider when deciding where to submit your work. Learn how to choose a journal that will help your study reach its audience, while reflecting your values as a researcher…

    The discussion section contains the results and outcomes of a study. An effective discussion informs readers what can be learned from your…

    Ensure appropriateness and rigor, avoid flexibility and above all never manipulate results In many fields, a statistical analysis forms the heart of…

    Essay headline

    Essay headline

    How your title impacts the success of your article
    Essay headline
    Include the most important information that will signal to your target audience that they should keep reading. Essay headline
    Researchers are busy and there will always be more articles to read than time to read them. Essay headline

    Researchers are busy and there will always be more articles to read than time to read them. Good titles help readers find your research, and decide whether to keep reading. Search engines use titles to retrieve relevant articles based on users’ keyword searches. Once readers find your article, they’ll use the title as the first filter to decide whether your research is what they’re looking for. A strong and specific title is the first step toward citations, inclusion in meta-analyses, and influencing your field.

    Include the most important information that will signal to your target audience that they should keep reading.

    Key information about the study design

    What you discovered

    Essay headline
    Essay headline

  • Descriptive essay outline about a person 2022

    Descriptive essay outline about a person

      Write a short introduction with a thesis statement.

    Descriptive essay outline about a person

    How To Write A 2-3 Page Descriptive Essay: Hints For Dummies

    2-3 pages is a common length for the middle school academic papers. In an essay of such a length, you have enough space to develop all ideas and arrange them in a standard five-paragraph essay structure. If you should write a 2-3 page descriptive essay, it is even a better luck. To compose a good description, you shouldn’t be limited in words. The following simple hints will help you craft a good descriptive essay fast.

    The success of your work depends on the subject you choose to describe. It should be any person, object, memory, place, or event that has many interesting qualities to write about. It will be difficult to describe something simple unless you have a really rich imagination.

    Think of all details connected with the topic. Where the event took place? When did you meet that person? How did that person or object look like? Pay attention not only to physical characteristics, but to the emotions and memories that arise when you think of the subject of description. Why do you have those feelings? The addition of emotional aspect will give a reason for describing that particular subject and will make your descriptive essay more complete.

    Write down the details you want to focus on. Start with the general details. Then develop your list by adding more specific and narrow details. Decide on the most logical order of describing the qualities.

      Write a short introduction with a thesis statement.

    In a descriptive essay, a thesis statement should express your personal perception of the subject of description (e.g. it makes you happy, it is ugly, it is useful, etc.)

    Look for the mistakes. Check if you description is consistent and fluent. Check if the length of your work meets the requirement of 2-3 pages.

    Descriptive essay outline about a person

    Descriptive is defined as giving details or something that describes. An example of descriptive is someone giving a very detailed account of an experience they had; a descriptive person. Descriptive essay outline about a person

    What is descriptive essay and example?

    The descriptive essay is a genre of essay that asks the student to describe something—object, person, place, experience, emotion, situation, etc. This genre encourages the student’s ability to create a written account of a particular experience. Here are some guidelines for writing a descriptive essay.

    1. Step 1: Choose a topic. A descriptive essay will usually focus on a single event, a person, a location or an item.
    2. Step 2: Create a statement. The next step is to create a thesis statement.
    3. Step 3: Get the senses right.
    4. Step 4: Create an outline.
    5. Step 5: Write the conclusion.
    6. Step 6: Review your essay.
    7. Step 7: Finish it up.

    Additionally, what is descriptive and example?

    Descriptive is defined as giving details or something that describes. An example of descriptive is someone giving a very detailed account of an experience they had; a descriptive person.

    What is essay and example?

    A formal essay is a piece of writing that informs or persuades its audience. There are other kinds of essays. For example, the narrative essay relays a story with a moral or lesson. The personal essay illustrates the writer’s opinion on a topic.

    Descriptive essay outline about a person

    Descriptive essays make use of the five senses. The writer effectively conveys personal perceptions on the subject through the use of sensory details and figurative details. Sensory details are those that appeal to the five senses while figurative details involve the use of similes and metaphors to describe the subject. The use of sensory details makes the essay more vibrant and appealing to the readers’ imagination. For example, graphic descriptions of odors — pleasant or unpleasant — allows readers to “experience” smells. Descriptive essay outline about a person

    2 Visualization

    Descriptive essays are based more on “show” than “tell” — giving readers a visual idea of the subject. For example, a “tell” sentence would be, “The sun disappeared into the water.” The same sentence in “show” mode might read, “The setting sun disappeared in a blaze of red and gold glory, swallowed up, it would seem, by the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean.” Through vivid depictions, the writer conveys to readers individual impressions based on emotions or perceptions.

    Descriptive essay outline about a person

    Here’s the step-by-step process on how to start a descriptive essay: Descriptive essay outline about a person

    Step-By-Step Guide To Descriptive Essay Writing

    Experienced writers know that good writing is created in stages. That is why it is important for students to follow the essay writing process. This step-by-step process will help you even if you are a student who is still wondering, “what is a descriptive essay?”

    Here’s the step-by-step process on how to start a descriptive essay:

    1. Choosing a topic: Students can choose to describe a person, object, or place of significance in their lives like a mother, favorite gadget, or a picnic spot. The Internet can provide students with many descriptive essay ideas to give them a good starting point.
    1. Brainstorming the details: After you’ve chosen the essay topic, you should brainstorm the characteristics of your topic. Think about its significance in your life and your feelings associated with it. Also, think about the physical side of things, such as the surroundings, where the place is located, where a person lives, etc.… Dig through your memories and emotions associated with the topic.
    1. Writing the thesis statement: It’s important to learn how to write a thesis for a descriptive essay. Your thesis statement should be 1 – 2 sentences long and to the point. For narrow topics, you can just write a simple sentence describing the topic. However, if your topic is broad, you should write a thesis statement that describes not only your topic but also your argument.
    1. Creating an outline: To write your descriptive essay comfortably, you must create an outline. Think about the descriptive essay format and plan ahead by writing a sentence or two for each paragraph. These sentences should give you a good idea about what you are going to write in each paragraph.
    1. Writing the initial draft: Now, you can start writing your initial draft from the outline that you created previously. For descriptive essays, always remember to give a rich experience of the subject to your readers. Use all of your senses and try painting a picture in your reader’s mind instead of simply narrating a story. You should write in a way that the reader can actually feel what you are feeling, see what you are seeing, and hear what you hear through your writing.
    1. Revising the essay: Your initial draft now requires a few modifications and reorganization. In this step, students should aim to make their essay the best it can be. Reread what you have read, and find out whether your essay sounds exactly how you wanted. Check whether the paragraphs make sense and connect well with each other. Also, check your word choice, and if you have used all your senses to describe the subject.
    1. Editing the essay: Here, you will get rid of all the grammar, spelling and syntax-related errors from your essay. By using interesting syntax, you can make your essay more appealing to your readers.
    1. Submitting the essay: Finally, you can submit your essay. If you feel a little anxious about your work, don’t worry because almost everyone feels the same way. As long as you’ve followed the essay writing process, there’s not much to worry about. Also, don’t get upset if your professor finds some mistakes in your work. Take it as an opportunity to make your next essay even better.

    When writing a descriptive essay about a person, students need to describe not only the person’s appearance, but also his behavior, temper, and overall character. You can choose to write about someone close to you, but it will be better to write about someone you admire or a historical personality.

    Start by describing the appearance, as that is the first thing anyone notices about a person. Then describe the clothes, face, complexion, hair, physique, etc.… You can also describe the acts and behavior like whether the person likes to drink, loses temper, shows kindness towards others, and so on.

    Describing your subject’s character can be difficult, and so you may need to dig deep to get that information. Finally, you can describe the emotional side of the person. For this, you may need to find special videos and text in which the person shares their true feelings about a person or an event.

    If you’re still wondering how do you write a descriptive essay, you should check out a descriptive essay sample on the Internet before starting the essay writing process. There are many samples on the Internet, which will eliminate confusion and show you how to approach a descriptive essay.

    If you don’t know how to write a descriptive essay about a place, you can simply start by describing the location of the place. Before describing the main scenery, you can summarize the surroundings in order to make the place stand out.

    It is important to notice even the smallest details about the place to make your essay interesting. In the body paragraphs, you should describe the place through your senses. Write down what you see, hear, taste, or feel about the place. Your writing should be successful at creating a mental picture in the reader’s head.

    After you have explained the place intensively, it is time to expand on those feelings before you conclude your essay. In conclusion, you should restate your main idea and describe why the place has such an important significance in your life. Finally, you can end your essay by reviewing the most important things that connect you to that place, and why it is so important to you.

    Example Topics For A Descriptive Essay

    Here are a few descriptive essay topics to give you a good starting point:

    Descriptive essay outline about a person

    Descriptive essay outline about a person

    Step-By-Step Guide To Descriptive Essay Writing
    Descriptive essay outline about a person
    Experienced writers know that good writing is created in stages. That is why it is important for students to follow the essay writing process. This step-by-step process will help you even if you are a student who is still wondering, “what is a descriptive essay?” Descriptive essay outline about a person
    Writing the thesis statement It s important to learn how to write a thesis for a descriptive essay. Descriptive essay outline about a person

    Descriptive Essay Writing – Tips And Examples

    A descriptive essay shows a student’s ability to produce a written version of their experience. Many students want to learn how to write a descriptive essay as it provides them with the artistic freedom that they desire.

    Descriptive essays are considered to be the simplest form of academic essays, where students just have to describe their sensory observations of a subject. There are no details or proof required while writing a descriptive essay; students can just summarize what they see, hear, smell, or taste about their topic. A good descriptive essay brings a subject to life by painting a vivid and moving picture in the reader’s mind.

    Descriptive essay outline about a person
    Descriptive essay outline about a person, descriptive essay

  • Definitional argument topics ideas 2022

    Definitional argument topics ideas

    Topic Sentence : Today’s lighting trends focus on cleaner lines and softer metallics, characterizing a need for simplicity and calm in an increasingly complex and anxious world. Definitional argument topics ideas

    Definitional argument topics ideas

    Just like a thesis, topic sentences are key elements in college essays. However, while you have only one thesis in an essay, you will have multiple topic sentences in an essay. Topic sentences are like signposts that extract pieces of the thesis idea or angle and let your reader know the part of the thesis angle that you are discussing. They help shape the essay and move it along from one main idea to the next.

    Like the thesis, topic sentences themselves have topics and angles. The topic may be the same as the thesis’ topic, but the angle differs depending on the part of the thesis angle the topic sentence is offering. Think of topic sentences in this way: The thesis sentence offers the main idea or insight for the whole essay; a topic sentence offers the main idea or insight for a section of the essay. To use another metaphor, a thesis sentence illuminates the whole space; a topic sentence illuminates one portion of the space.

    Thesis Sentence

    Topic Sentence

    Here’s an example

    Thesis sentence : Trends in home lighting change as aesthetic values respond to social experience; this is most noticeable if you compare lighting trends of the 1960s, 1990s, and today.

    Topic Sentence : Lighting in the 1960s was ebullient, in-your-face lighting, with big glass globes and colorful “mod” desk lamps, characterizing both the optimism and rebellion of the decade.

    Topic Sentence : 1990s lighting trends focused on both technology, reflecting the new importance of technical advances during that decade, and ornate metallic accents, reflecting wealth and stability, as seen in the trends for track lighting and brass lamps and chandeliers.

    Topic Sentence : Today’s lighting trends focus on cleaner lines and softer metallics, characterizing a need for simplicity and calm in an increasingly complex and anxious world.

    It might be helpful to think of a topic sentence as working in two directions simultaneously. Topic sentences relate the paragraph to the essay’s thesis, and thereby act as a signpost for the argument of the paper as a whole, but they also define the scope of the paragraph or unit of support itself. (A unit of support is made up of multiple paragraphs which support the same topic sentence.)

    For example, consider the following topic sentence and supporting paragraph from an essay whose thesis deals (humorously) with ways in which fast-food chains make profits.

    Thesis : Fun can be all-consuming, and we’re fond of consuming “fun.” Fast-food chains are known for clowning around, adding a dollop for a dollar, including special “forget sauce” in their meals, and playing games with portions, all of which create profits as hefty as our waistlines may become.

    Topic sentence and supporting paragraph :

    Many fast-food chains make their profits from adding a special ingredient called “forget sauce” to their foods. (This topic sentence extracts one of the ideas from the thesis. It also controls the paragraph that follows, so that all sentences in the paragraph or unit of support must relate in some way to fast food, profit, and “forget sauce.”) Made largely from edible oil products, this condiment is never listed on the menu. (This sentence fits in with the topic sentence because it is a description of the composition of “forget sauce.”) In addition, this well-kept industry secret is the reason why ingredients are never listed on the packaging of victuals sold by these restaurants. (The transitional phrase “In addition” relates the composition of “forget sauce” to secret fast-food industry practices.) “Forget sauce” has a chemical property which causes temporary amnesia in consumers. (This sentence states the short-term effect on consumers.) After spending too much money on barely edible food bereft of any nutritional value, most consumers swear they will never repeat such a disagreeable experience. Within a short period, however, the chemical in “forget sauce” takes effect, and they can be depended upon to return and spend, older but no wiser. (This sentence describes its longer-term effects and relates back to the thesis sentence, as it discusses profits made from “forget sauce.”)

    The following brief video provides a simple way of explaining an important concept about topic sentences, that they link supporting ideas and examples to the thesis throughout an essay and create a logical flow of ideas within an essay.

    Note: The content in this video is presented visually. You may listen to this video with audio description.

    Definitional argument topics ideas

    One of the major modes of discourse, argumentation can be applied to virtually all assignments involving critical reasoning no matter the subject or discipline. As it involves a higher level of reasoning than associated with descriptive writing, or narrative writing, or expository writing per se, it is crucial for the successful university-level student to understand and master the principles, indeed the concepts that drive the critical thinking skills associated with argumentative writing. Definitional argument topics ideas

    Definitional argument topics ideas

    One of the major modes of discourse, argumentation can be applied to virtually all assignments involving critical reasoning no matter the subject or discipline. As it involves a higher level of reasoning than associated with descriptive writing, or narrative writing, or expository writing per se, it is crucial for the successful university-level student to understand and master the principles, indeed the concepts that drive the critical thinking skills associated with argumentative writing.

    The argumentative essay shares many characteristics with the expository essay. The argument also consists of an introduction, body and conclusion. It also is built around a major premise (in this instance, called the Proposition rather than the Thesis Statement). Additionally, there is a definite pattern of organization used in developing the argument. But before delving more deeply into this, let us go to the fundamentals.

    What Is An “Argument?”

    First, one must be familiar with the terminology. In this instance, the term argument refers to “a reasoned attempt to convince the audience to accept a particular point of view about a debatable topic.” Looking more closely at this definition, we observe that the argument is not irrational; it does not depend strictly on passion or emotion. Rather, argumentation represents a “reasoned attempt,” that is, an effort based on careful thinking and planning where the appeal is to the mind, the intellect of the audience at hand. Why? The answer to this is that one wants to “convince the audience to accept a particular point of view.”

    The key concept here is “to convince the audience,” that is, you must make them believe your position, accept your logic and evidence. Not only do you want them to accept the evidence, but you want that audience to accept “a particular point of view” — that point of view, or perspective, is yours. It is your position, your proposition. Understand that all too often the audience may be intrigued by the evidence presented, but that intrigue alone is not enough to convince them of the validity or authority of your position in the matter.

    You want the audience to accept your point of view about the topic whether it is gun control, safe sex, or stiffer prison sentences for criminal offenders no matter what age. Finally, there must be “a debatable topic” present for a true argument to develop.

    What is debatable? One cannot, for example, debate whether or not the Los Angeles Dodgers won the 1988 World Series or that Dodger pitcher Orel Hershiser won the Most Valuable Player Award for that particular World Series. One cannot debate the fact that the Chicago Bulls won three consecutive National Basketball Association (NBA) championships from 1991-1993 or that Evander Holyfield, while losing his heavyweight champion of the world title to Riddick Bowe in 1992 was able to regain the title 11 months later in 1993 at Caesar’s Palace in Las Vegas.

    Those are indisputable facts. One cannot debate the fact that Rev. Jesse Louis Jackson lost the 1988 bid for the Democratic Party’s Presidential nomination to Michael Dukakis. That also is fact.

    One can debate, however, what the concept of “Freedom” means to those Black South Africans living under apartheid. One can certainly debate whether or not high school administrators should ban the wearing of baseball caps by students to school as was the case in the San Fernando Valley during the 1988 school year in an effort to nip gang violence in the bud as being effective or over-reaching boundaries. Again, the key principle here is that the topic must be one which has at least two sides — Pro (those in favor of the proposition under discussion) and Con (those who are against the Proposition as stated).

    Now that we understand what the term argument refers to, we move to the fact that every argument must have a Proposition — this is the major premise of the argument and classically will have at least three ( 3 ) major claims on which it is to be built.

    The negative image of the African American male can be directly traced to the historic stereotyping of a racist white mentality evidenced in motion pictures, in literature and in popular American folklore.

    Note here that the major premise is that the negative image of the African American male can be directly traced to the historic stereotyping of a racist white mentality. But to develop this proposition, the person must show through evidence ( 1 ) negative images in motion pictures, ( 2 ) negative images in American literature, and ( 3 ) negative images of African American males in popular American folklore. What you want to keep in mind, irrespective of the position you might be advancing, is to formulate a clearly stated proposition. There must be no ambiguity about your proposition. You also want to indicate within that proposition how you intend to support or develop it. And finally, you want to do so within one complete sentence that carries a subject and a verb.

    Evidence in Argumentation

    To support your proposition, one must present evidence. There are two ( 2 ) types of evidence used in argumentation : fact(s) and opinion(s). Facts consist of items that can be verified or proven. There are at least four ( 4 ) categories of facts:

    1. By Scientific Measurement — one measures the extent of an earthquake not by how “it felt,” but rather how it measured on the Richter Scale. In track and field, one commonly finds the Accutron used to time running events in thousandths of a second and the more accurate metric system used in field events such as the long jump or javelin throw;
    2. By the Way Nature Works — we know that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west; that water flows downhill, not uphill; that cloud formations indicate specific weather patterns;
    3. By Observation — in courts of law, this would consist of eyewitness testimony. In research, this might consist of a longitudinal study of a phenomenom carried out over a period of 3-5 years involving several hundreds or thousands of cases looking for and recording similarities and differences; and
    4. By Statistics — to note that for the year 1988, crimes of violence in the United States increased 9.2 percent from 1987 — from 112,598 reported cases to 122,957 (a gain of 10,359 crimes). While this is a hypothetical example, one sees the approach used.

    The second type of evidence that can be utilized in an argument is opinion. In this instance, we are not talking about your personal opinion (the audience already knows your position in the matter!). Nor are we talking about the way you friend might feel about the issue. That would surely be inadmissable in a court of law. Rather, the type of opinion we deal with here is expert opinion — the opinions expressed by an established authority in the field. If the topic is child abuse patterns, then one may wish to cite a child psychologist who has published on the subject or the head of a group like Parents Anonymous that has dedicated itself to reducing and/or eliminating child abuse. The opinion(s) cited must be credible.

    It is in presenting your evidence that you are, in fact, developing the Body of your argument. Keep in mind that in putting forth your Proposition, you do so in your introductory paragraphs. In developing that Introduction, you want to get the attention of the audience — so again, make effective use of the various opening strategies. That evidence, be it fact or opinion, must be present in each of the three planks you put forth to develop and support your proposition. You want to make ample use of examples and illustrations along the way, bringing your proposition to life before the audience, painting word-pictures so that they can see, hear and feel what you are advancing to them. You want to convince, not merely inform!

    One area often overlooked by those engaged in argumentation, even the more practised, consists of fallacies. A fallacy is best described as illogical reasoning. There are many reasons why this can occur, but in this section we will single out some of the more important fallacies in hopes that you will memorize what they are, avoid them in your arguments, and be able to spot them in the arguments presented by others.

    Hasty generalization occurs when you come to a conclusion based on too few examples or insufficient data. You might call this “jumping to conclusions.” By the same token, when taken to the extreme we find that the hasty generalization becomes stereotyping when the actions or traits of a few are generalized to take in an entire group. Stereotyping can be mean, even vicious. Think of various ethnic stereotypes associated with African Americans, Asians, Hispanics and Jews.

    Begging the Question takes place when you assume as a basic premise something that needs to be proven, for example:

    1. Inner city schools are inferior to suburban schools.
    2. Black colleges are inferior to major state-run universities.
    3. The Black Athlete is naturally superior to others.

    Evading the Question happens when you move from the real issue and begin discussing something else. Imagine that the District Attorney in a streetgang homicide case implicates the single parent mother as a defendant as well for failing to know the whereabouts of her son. Or, asserting that racism in America is no longer a problem with the gains made by African Americans in electoral politics when the issue is the chronic, longtime double-digit unemployment of adult African American males. This type of fallacy will also involve name calling as when you accuse your opponent of being a wife beater or alcoholic rather than sticking with the issues. Avoid this. It distracts from your argument and is dishonest.

    Finally, there is argumentum ad hominem. This occurs when you direct your argument to the prejudices and instincts of the crowd, of the mob, rather than dealing with the real issue(s). For example, in speaking to a group of welfare recipients about their tenant rights, you base your argument on the indignities they may have suffered rather than educating them to the problem(s) at hand and what they can do about these.

    As you can see, to properly develop an argument calls for time, it calls for research, it calls for careful thinking and planning. It also makes certain demands on you relative to ethics — that is, you want to always be truthful when addressing the issues, you want to avoid deceit or the appearance of deception, yours is the burden of maintaining credibility at all times. This is not easy but as you go along, one gains experience and confidence. Anticipating Objections

    All too often do we fall in love with our point of view to the extent that we forget our own humanity — that is, all humans will err. No one can make a claim to absolute truth on an issue. One must always contend with the shadow of a doubt. So long as this is true, then you must be conscious of the fact that your opponent may have very valid objections to your proposition. You should try to anticipate, to think of the possible objections that can be made against your argument. Not only that, but those good practicioners of the art will incorporate those objections into their argument and answer them along the way. This is very impressive. Not only have you, so to speak, stolen some of your opponent’s thunder, but you have also made a very positive impression on your audience/your reader. For that audience is now saying to itself, “Wow, this person has really done his/her homework!”

    The incorporation of these possible objections can occur all along the de- velopment of your argument. They can appear in each and every one of your support planks to your proposition and can then be reiterated at the summary. And it is in the Summary, which is the term used to refer to the conclusion of the argumentative essay, that one wraps everything up in convincing the reader(s) of your point of view.

    The Closing Strategies

    Nowhere is it more true than with the argumentative essay that you want to close strongly! The fact is that you not only want the audience to hear you; you also want them to believe you and, where needed, take action on what they have heard. To that end, the argumentative essay will certainly draw from the eight different strategies that exist to conclude. You may wish to use a combination of these strategies as you make your presentation of proof. With the thought in mind that this paper carries ample evidence, make certain to observe the guidelines for documentation. For those in the social sciences, there are both APA and ASA guidelines that do exist and can be studied. The same applies for those in the humanities with the Modern Language Association.

    In this presentation, we have examined some of the basic principles that surround the argumentative mode of discourse. For those concerned with arguing as a social process, then concern must certainly be paid to certain communication rules as you are not verbally assaulting someone but rather, as noted earlier, making a rational appeal to the audience to accept a particular point of view based upon a claim supported by evidence. Those Speech Communication scholars will point out that there are four social conventions which govern any argument. As Douglas Ehninger points out, “That is, when you decide to argue with another person, you are making, generally, commitments to four standards of judgment:”

      Convention of Bilaterality: Argument is explicitly bilateral: it requires at least two people or two competing messages. The arguer, implicitly or explicitly, is saying that he or she is presenting a message that can be examined by others. A spokesperson for the National Urban League, for example, assumes that designation and puts forth that organization’s proposed solution(s) to certain social problems that America is faced with in oppostion to solutions offered by others. In doing so, the National Urban League specifically calls for counterargument so that a middle ground may be reached.

    With this in mind, the person about to engage in debate will always take care to assess not only the assertion being made, but the audience to whom that claim is being presented. You may have done exhaustive research on a proposition. You may have thought your argument out, have written a good opening and closed with a logical conclusion. But if you have failed to take into account the nature of the audience listening to your assertion, then there is a great likelihood that your argument will fall upon deaf ears.

    Take, for instance, the person whose argument is that predominantly black inner-city schools are inferior to predominantly white suburban schools. That individual has built this argument by pointing out the problems of high absenteeism rates, high drop-out rates, problems with drug trafficking on and near the campus, little or no parental involvement in the parent-teacher associations, lax discipline in the classrooms, and poor student performance on standardized tests. At the same time, this arguer has failed to take into account that those listening to this argument live in the inner city, have brothers and sisters, perhaps older relatives who attended the very schools being disparaged or, in their eyes, “put down” yet one more time. It is on factors such as this that arguments are won and lost, where the arguer has failed to take into account the human dimension of the problem — the people you are addressing without taking into account their own emotions about the issue under discussion.

    The same holds true for writing an argumentative essay. One becomes impressed not only by the breadth of the research or the writer’s command of the facts involved, but even moreso by the logic combined with compassion and insight that the arguer demonstrates. Those who would frame an argument without taking into account the human element, who would plunge headlong into the debate without taking time to stop and ask the question, “Who is my audience and how do they feel about this? How have or will they be affected by what I have to say?” run the great risk not only of falling short in their argument, but alienating the audience at the same time. Where there is alienation, communication cannot take place. Always keep this in mind as you develop assertions and present reasons for your beliefs: that people and not walls are taking in your message.

    There are four modes of discourse: narration, description, exposition, and argumentation. Of the four, argumentation is unquestionably the primal form of communication as it involves the fine art of persuasion as well. The argumentative essay may also be referred to as the Assertion-with- Evidence essay. The person is making an assertion, a statement that says, “This is so,” which he or she then begins to prove through evidence. That assertion is also known as the proposition (i.e., the main idea of an argu- mentative essay). This proposition should have at least three patterns evident within it by which the arguer will develop the argument. Argument itself may be simply defined as “a reasoned attempt to convince the audience to accept a particular point of view about a debateable subject or topic.”

    The evidence one uses in any argument may be divided into fact and expert opinion. The evidence can and should take the forms of examples, details, illustrations, statistics. When developing an argumentative essay, one has to always beware of fallacies or “illogical reasoning.” While there are many types of fallacies that can and do exist in rhetoric, six ( 6 ) basic ones have been presented here for your review and thinking — hasty generalizations, stereotyping, begging the question, name calling, evading the question, and argumentum ad hominem. In addition, the good argumentative essay will always try to take into account what the opposition or contrary position might have to say and include or address that within the paper.

    Definitional argument topics ideas

    The body section of the definition essay consists of the following information: Definitional argument topics ideas

    What is a Definition Essay Outline?

    Similar to other assignments like a term paper, research paper, and compare and contrast essay, etc. A definition essay also needs an outline. The plan will highlight the essential elements of the essay that needs an explanation of the content.

    To properly present a definition and explanation of the topic, the writer needs structured content. Without a structured presentation, the audience will not be able to understand your point.

    Like other essay types, a definition essay requires an outline to maintain a logical flow in the content. This essay uses the traditional outline of 5 paragraphs that arranges all the information in a readable text.

    Definition Essay Outline Format

    The outline for your definition essay has three major sections in which all the gathered information is divided. These sections include an introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion.

    Below is the basic format in which a definition essay is written:

    1. 1. Introduction
      • Official or dictionary definition
      • An interesting statement or personal information
      • Thesis statement
    2. 2. Each Body Paragraph
      • Topic sentence
      • Analysis
      • Supporting information
      • Transition to the next idea/ conclusion
    3. 3. Conclusion
      • Restated thesis statement
      • Summary of the major points
      • Final words

    Below are some outline templates that will help in your writing phase.

    Definition Essay Outline Template (PDF)

    Extended Definition Essay Outline (PDF)

    Definitional argument topics ideas

    First of all, make sure that the word you’ve chosen belongs at least to one of the following kinds: Definitional argument topics ideas

    Conclusion

    So, the question on how to write a definition essay is solved. Choosing a good topic is the first key to a successful essay. Gathering a reliable material and putting life into an essay is the second key. And the last one is the correct formatting and re-reading. Our simple guide and common topics for definition essay will help to succeed in composing this assignment. The highest score and satisfaction with your result are guaranteed. Now when you have to write a freedom definition essay or any other type of this assignment, there is no need to worry.

    Definitional argument topics ideas

    Definitional argument topics ideas

    The Body a Definition Essay
    Definitional argument topics ideas
    On the other hand, a definition essay has its advantages. You are not going to give any arguments to protect your point of view. The only purpose of this paper is to provide the readers with the appropriate, meaningful, and objective explanation of the word, concept, or notion. In order to make your work worth being read and get a good grade, of course, try to add to it personal experience, objective thoughts, and the official definition from the competent and trustworthy dictionaries. Definitional argument topics ideas
    It will help you develop your ideas in your definition essay. Definitional argument topics ideas

    Definition Essay Topics – Choose the Best for You!

    Many students ask how to write a definition essay and appreciate any input. They read lists of topics in order to get the ideas to get flashed upon them. Definition essay topics for a college are a regular question of many students. The task of writing a definition essay doesn’t seem extremely difficult if you like the topic or have many ideas. Definition essay topics can be of great help if a student doesn’t know how to start:

    Definition Essay on Love

    1. Your definition of true love.
    2. Does it easy come from love to hate?
    3. The notion of love in the Middle Ages.
    4. Love when you are a teenager – how is it?
    5. Does love require sacrifice?
    6. Definition of a love triangle – how does it happen to be?
    7. How does the love of two change with time?
    8. Does love ever end?
    9. Is it possible to love a person for a whole life?
    10. Romeo and Juliet and other classical examples of unhappy love.
    11. Is love in romance books the same as in a real life?

    Family Definition Essay

    1. What does the word “family” mean to you personally?
    2. Childfree family – what is it?
    3. Definition of a big family and a small one.
    4. A single parent – can he/she be called a family?
    5. Can distant relatives be considered a part of the family?
    6. Family in the previous century – how it was.
    7. Do modern parents spend more time with their kids?
    8. How does religion influence the family?
    9. The role of the family in Islam.
    10. Same-gender families – do they have equal rights with standard families?
    11. Equal rights of both spouses – it is possible?

    Freedom Definition Essay

    1. Freedom of choice – what does it mean?
    2. They say we have an elusive freedom – it is right?
    3. The notion of freedom for people working extremely hard (dangerous plants, mines, etc.).
    4. Freedom in the eyes of a freshman.
    5. The US constitution’s interpretation of freedom.
    6. The definition of freedom today.
    7. Did freedom exist in the Middle Ages?
    8. Does free mean happy?
    9. The essence of freedom in the third-world countries.
    10. Does a child have freedom?
    11. How to make a happy childhood for your kids.

    Happiness Definition Essay

    1. What things make you happy?
    2. Happiness equals money, doesn’t it?
    3. How to become happy without spending a penny?
    4. Definition of happiness in philosophy.
    5. Define happiness as a part of a religious life.
    6. Do people lose the feeling of happiness with age?
    7. How to develop an ability to feel happy with ordinary things?
    8. How do people in different countries describe happiness?
    9. What was happiness for people in the Middle Ages?
    10. Psychological methods to become happy and satisfied with your life.
    11. Alcohol – the elusive happiness?

    Common Topics for a Definition Essay

    1. Find the definition of inner balance in different sources.
    2. What features does a leader possess?
    3. The secrets of time-management – how to cope with your routine tasks effectively.
    4. Traits of a true winner – how to reach goals in 10/10.
    5. The best definition (of any notion) you’ve heard.
    6. Give your own definition of love, friendship, family and happiness.
    7. How can the best friend become the worst enemy?
    8. What does a creative spirit mean?
    9. Is it possible to change your way of life completely?
    10. How do people treat renegades and what does this word mean in dictionaries?
    11. Simple ways to make every day special.

    Extended Definition Essay Topics

    1. Choose 3-4 words with a prefix self- in the dictionary and find out the things they have in common.
    2. Do police & FBI violate our rights and freedom?
    3. Symptoms of an unhealthy way of life and how to remove them.
    4. The essence and reasons for procrastination, ways of combating it.
    5. Five factors that can prove that a person has been actualized.
    6. Make your own definition of a mature personality and specify the ways of becoming such a person.
    7. Find information about national heroes and make your own definition of such a person.
    8. Choosing a career – pitfalls of all the school leavers. How to make your own choice?
    9. An example of a person to follow – why do people need idols?
    10. Frugalism and greediness – defining the red line.
    11. How to define an abuser in a family?

    Definition Argument Essay Topics

    1. Hookah smoking – is it as safe as considered?
    2. The issue of euthanasia – can a sufferer be safely killed by his will?
    3. Definition of “light” drugs and should they be legalized or not?
    4. Adolescence suicide – reasons and preventive measures.
    5. Should abortion be prohibited and women who do it punished?
    6. Racial segregation in the USA – what factors led to it?
    7. Sex discrimination at work – does it still exist?
    8. Milder laws for abusers – can a victim be a provocateur?
    9. The notion of bullying at school – should the offenders take responsibility?
    10. Definition of body-shaming. BS as a new trend of 2010-s – should people be hated for their imperfect bodies?
    11. Social media as a drug – how to kick the habit?

    Definition Essay Topics for College

    1. What is the definition of basic human needs?
    2. Define two things that a human needs the most.
    3. Give examples of the definition of the most terrible means used by people to destroy each other.
    4. Male chauvinism on the Internet.
    5. Hints to detect a violator at first sight
    6. What person can be considered well-adjusted?
    7. The main traits of a superhero in real life.
    8. Networking and team building – are they really necessary for success?
    9. Tricks to avoid conflicts and potential arguments.
    10. Definition of a sense of humor: what does it mean to have it in real life?
    11. How to cope with more tasks in short terms – secrets of self-organization.

    Definitional argument topics ideas
    Definitional argument topics ideas

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